Act of Union - Ireland and Britain formally united
||Creation of Sinn Fein - a political party with the aim of freeing
Ireland from British rule
||Creation of Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) - formed of Protestants
who opposed Irish Home Rule
||Easter Uprising - Irish Catholics proclaim an Irish Republic in
Dublin, brutally suppressed by the British Army. The Easter Uprising
volunteers become known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA)
||Partition of Ireland: The 6 northern counties remain part of the
United Kingdom with a parliament in Belfast, while the 26 other counties
form the Irish Free State with a parliament in Dublin. Conflict over
partition led to intra-communal violence that left hundreds dead
||Irish Free State granted full independence
from Britain and becomes the Republic of Ireland.
||Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) formed to agitate
for full civil and political rights for Catholics in Northern Ireland.
19th century anti-Catholic laws remained on the statute books as
the Northern Ireland parliament was dominated by Protestant Unionists.
||Duke Street March was a demonstration of the Civil Rights Association
that was violently attacked by the Royal Ulster Constabulary. It
is also commonly referred to as the beginning of the "Troubles."
||The Irish Republican Army (IRA) splits into the Official IRA and
the Provisional IRA (PIRA).
||Internment (detention without trial) of IRA members legalized.
||Bloody Sunday - British paratroopers fire on a peaceful civil rights
protest in Derry killing 14 people. Belfast parliament is suspended
and Northern Ireland will be ruled direct from London. The IRA responds
with increased attacks on British targets.
||Hunger strikes and violent attacks on British targets in Northern
Ireland and Britain.
||IRA and Loyalist groups declare a ceasefire.
||Multi-party peace talks break down over disarmament, violence
||Six months of peace talks lead to the Good Friday Agreement and
a formal end to hostilities.
||A bomb set by the Real IRA kills 29 civilians in Omagh, the worst
single bombing of the Troubles for civilian victims.
||Direct rule ends as power is handed to the Northern Ireland Assembly.
||Continuing controversy over the decommissioning of weapons leads
to the re-instatement of Direct Rule and the suspension of the Northern
Ireland Assembly from February to May.
||The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) is replaced by the Police Service
of Northern Ireland (PSNI) with recruitment set to be 50% Catholic
and 50% Protestant.
||The PIRA announces that they have decommissioned.
||A new Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.
||Two British army soldiers are shot dead, then one British police
officer. Dissident Republicans claim responsibility. Fears grow of
a new phase of violence, but there are strong public displays of
opposition to any more violence, and the killings are rejected by
all political parties.
||Scandal involving Iris Robinson, MLA and wife of Peter Robinson,
the First Minister of the NI Assembly, leads to Peter Robinson temporarily
stepping down as First Minister -- he resumes his role in February.
||Ronan Kerr, a 25-year-old Catholic PSNI officer, was killed after
a bomb exploded under his car in Omagh, County Tyrone, for which
the Real IRA claimed responsibility. Hundreds of people peacefully
marched through Omagh in protest against the violence.
||Queen Elizabeth II's visit to Ireland, the first visit of a British
Monarch since 1911 to the Republic of Ireland.
|2011 (June/ July)
||2011 Northern Ireland riots were a series of riots starting originally
in Belfast, before spreading to other parts of NI, and are considered
the most serious in the area for a decade.
||Supergrass trials in Belfast cause Loyalist riots after the controversial
Supergrass hearings of the 1980s.