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BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF SCOTLAND

55-54 BC

Julius Caesar invades Britain

AD 80 Agricola invades Lowlands of Scotland
140-80 Antoine Wall in Scotland
214 The Romans abandon Scotland
297 First reference to “Picti”
410 The Romans abandon Britain
500 “Scoti” colonise Dalriada (Argyll)
563 St. Columba comes to Scotland and the island of Iona
795 First Viking raid on the island of Iona
1005-34 Reign of Malcolm II
1034 Death of Malcolm II; accession of Duncan
1040 Macbeth defeats and kills Duncan I
1050 Macbeth goes on pilgrimage to Rome
c.1070 Malcolm III marries Margaret of England
1072 William I invades Scotland; Malcolm III submits
1296 Edward I invades Scotland, deposes Balliol
1297

William Wallace rebels against the English occupation ; Battle of Stirling Bridge: Wallace defeats an English army

1298 Wallace defeated at Battle of Falkirk; John Comyn and Robert Bruce appointed guardians
1302 Robert Bruce defects to Edward I
1304 Scotland submits to Edward I
1305 Wallace captured, and executed in London
1306 Robert Bruce murders John Comyn; Bruce crowned King of Scots: Bruce defeated at Battle of Methven
1307 Bruce emerges from hiding, starts a comeback; death of Edward
1314 Bruce defeats Edward II at Bannockburn
1328 Edward III recognizes Scotland’s independence
1329 Death of Robert Bruce
1331 David II crowned King of Scots
1333 Edward III defeats the Scots at Halidon Hill
1517 Martin Luther launches the Reformation
1542 Birth of Mary Queen of Scots; Scots defeated at ‘Battle of Solway Moss; death of James V; Mary succeeds at the age of one week
1543 Mary crowned Queen of Scots; betrothal of Mary to Prince Edward of England fails
1547 John Knox captured and sentenced to the galleys; defeat of the Scots at Battle of Pinkie
1558 Elizabeth becomes Queen of England
1570-73 Civil war in Scotland
1572 Death of John Knox
1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots
1604 James VI & I proposes a full union of the United Kingdom
1611 The “King James Bible”
1625 Death of James VI &I; Charles I succeeds
1633 Charles I crowned in Edinburgh
1638 The National Covenant launched and signed
1642 Charles I declares war on Parliament
1646 Charles I surrenders to the Scots at Newark
1648 “The Engagement” forces defeated by Cromwell; the “Whiggamores Raid”
1649 Execution of Charles I
1650 Montrose invades the north of Scotland, is captured and executed; Charles II lands in Scotland; Cromwell defeats the Scots at Battle of Dunbar
1651 Charles II crowned by the Scots at Scone; Charles II defeated at Worcester
1652 Cromwell “incorporates” Scotland
1658 Death of Cromwell
1660 Restoration of Charles II
1682-85 “The Killing Time”
1685 Death of Charles II; James VII & II succeeds
1688 Birth of James Stuart, the “Old Pretender”; William of Orange lands in England: the “Glorious Revolution”; James VII & II flees to France
1689 William and Mary crowned in England; William and Mary accept the crown of Scotland
1701 Death of James VII & II in exile
1702 Death of King William; accession of Queen Anne
1707 Act of Union passed
1708 First Jacobite Rising fails
1714 Death of Queen Anne; George I succeeds
1720 Birth of Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”
1745 Prince Charles lands in Scotland; the ’45 Rising; Battle of Prestonpans; the march to Derby, and the retreat
1746 Battle of Falkirk Muir; Battle of Culloden; Prince Charles escapes to France
1746-82 Act of Prescription bans Highland dress and language
1771 Birth of Walter Scott
1832 Death of Walter Scott
1846 Scott Monument in Edinburgh completed
1853 National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights
1919 “Red Clydeside” riot in Glasgow
1928 National Party of Scotland founded
1934 Scottish National Party (SNP) founded
1949 National Covenant launched
1950 Young nationalists abduct the Stone of Destiny from Westminister Abbey
1974 SNP wins eleven parliamentary seats
1978 Scotland Act 1978 passed
1989 Scottish Constitutional Convention begins
1996 Stone of Destiny returns to Scotland
1997 Referendum on a parliament for Scotland
1998 Scotland Act 1998 passed
1999 (May) Elections for Scotland’s parliament; (1 July) Royal opening of Scotland’s new parliament

 

 

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