Physical Plant Safety Orientation
Supervisors must recognize those factors in the workplace with accident potential.
The supervisor shall provide frequent inspections of job sites, work methods,
and materials/equipment used. Any unsafe equipment/material shall be tagged
and rendered inoperative or physically removed from its place of operation.
The supervisor shall permit only qualified personnel to operate equipment and
machinery according to safe work practices.
Supervisors are responsible for:
- Ensuring safe working conditions
- Providing necessary protective equipment
- Ensuring that required guards and protective equipment are provided,
used, and properly maintained.
- Ensuring that tools and equipment are properly maintained and used.
- Planning the workload and assigning employees to jobs which they are
qualified to perform.
- Ensuring that the employees understand the work to be done, the hazards
that may be encountered, and the proper procedure for doing the work safely.
- Taking immediate action to correct any violation of safety rules observed
or reported to them.
- Ensuring workers exposed or potentially exposed to hazardous chemicals/materials
have access to appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
20 GENERAL SHOP/WORK AREA SAFETY
- Employee Training
Employees shall be thoroughly trained in the use of protective equipment,
guards, and safeguards for chemicals and safe operation of equipment, machines,
and tools they use or operate. Only employees who have been trained and those
undergoing supervised on-the-job training (OJT) shall be allowed to use shop
equipment, machines, and tools.
- Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is not a substitute for engineering controls
or feasible work or administrative procedures. While these controls are being
implemented, or if it has been determined that control methods are not feasible,
personal protective equipment is required whenever there are hazards that
can do bodily harm through absorption, inhalation, or physical contact.
This equipment includes respiratory and hearing protective devices, special
clothing, and protective devices for the eyes, face, head, and extremities.
All PPE shall be of a safe design and constructed for the work to be performed
and shall be maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition.
- Eye Protection
- Eye protection is required when there is a possibility of injury
from chemicals or flying particles. Examples of operation requiring
the use of eye protection include, but are not limited to:
- Chipping, grinding, and impact drilling.
- Breaking concrete, brick, and plaster.
- Welding or helping in welding of any type.
- Cleaning with compressed air.
- Tinning or soldering lugs or large joints.
- Riveting, grinding, or burning metals.
- Handling chemicals, acids, or caustics.
- Face shields shall be thoroughly washed with soap and water before
being worn by another person.
- Hearing Protection
Appropriate hearing protection shall be used where employees
are in designated hazardous noise areas with operating noise sources,
or using tools or equipment which are labeled as hazardous noise
producers. The Office of Health and Fire Safety shall be contacted
for noise level surveys and guidance on the type of hearing protection
- Hand Protection
- Rubber protective gloves shall be worn by personnel working
in battery shops or where acids, alkalies, organic solvents,
and other harmful chemicals are handled.
- Electrical worker's gloves are designed and shall
be used to insulate electrical workers from shock,
burns, and other electrical hazards. These gloves shall
NOT be the only protection provided and will never
be used with voltages higher than the insulation rating
of the gloves.
- Multi-use gloves shall be worn to
protect the hands from injuries caused
by handling sharp or jagged objects,
wood, or similar hazard-producing materials.
These gloves are usually made of cloth
material with chrome leather palms
and fingers or synthetic coating. All-leather
gloves are also acceptable.
- Foot Protection
Non-skid shoes shall be worn where floors may be wet or greasy.
Where there is reasonable probability of foot or toe injury from
impact and compression forces, safety footwear shall be worn.
There are various airborne hazards, e.g., organic vapors,
particulates, fumes, etc., that personnel may encounter and
respiratory protection may be required. The Office of Health
and Fire Safety shall be consulted for guidance on the type
of protection required.
Hard hats shall be worn by all personnel working below other
workers and in areas where sharp projections or other
head hazards exist.
Natural or synthetic rubber or acid-resisting rubberized
cloth aprons shall be worn by personnel handling
irritating or corrosive substances. Aprons shall normally be worn with
acid sleeves and gloves for greater body protection
against skin injuries.
Insulating matting shall be used by workers for additional
resistance to shock where potential shock hazards
exist, such as:
- Areas where floor resistance is lowered due to dampness.
- Areas where high voltages (above 600 bolts) may be encountered.
- Areas with electrical repair or test benches.
- Shop supervisors shall ensure that shop personnel use the
protective clothing and equipment that will protect them
from hazards of the work they perform. It is the responsibility
of workers to keep their PPE in a clean, sanitary state of
repair and use the equipment when required.
- Workers shall keep their hands and face clean, change clothes
when they are contaminated with solvents, lubricants, or
fuels, and keep their hands and soiled objects out of their
mouth. No food or drink shall be brought into or consumed
in areas exposed to toxic materials, chemicals, or shop contaminants.
Workers shall wash their hands before eating or smoking after
exposure to any contaminant.
- Workers shall not wear rings, earrings, bracelets, wristwatches,
or necklaces in the vicinity of operating machinery and power
tools. Additionally, long full beards, unrestrained long
hair, and loose clothing can become caught in tools or machinery
and cause serious personal injury. Highly combustible garments
or coveralls made of material such as nylon shall not be
worn in or around high temperature equipment or operations
such as boiler operations, welding, and any other work with
open flame devices.
Proper layout, spacing, and arrangement of equipment, machinery,
passageways, and aisles are essential to orderly operations and to
- Equipment and machinery shall be arranged to permit an even flow
of materials. Sufficient space should be provided to handle the
material with the least possible interference from or to workers
or other work being performed. Machines should be placed so it
is not necessary for an operator to stand in a passageway or aisle.
Additionally, machine positioning should allow for easy maintenance,
cleaning, and removal of scrap. Clear zones shall be established
and should be of sufficient dimensions to accommodate typical work.
Marking of machine clear zones may be yellow or yellow and black
hash-marked lines, 2 to 3 inches wide. Machines designed for fixed
locations shall be securely anchored. If pieces of stock to be
worked exceeds workplace/clear zone floor markings, rope/stanchions
may be used to temporarily extend the workplace. Machines with
shock mounting pads shall be securely anchored and installed according
to manufacturer's instructions.
- Passageways/aisles shall be provided and marked to permit the
free movement of employees bringing and removing material from
the shop. These passageways are independent of clear zones and
storage spaces. They shall be clearly recognizable.
- Where powered materials handling equipment (forklift) is used,
facility layout shall provide enough clearance in aisles, on loading
docks, and through doorways to permit safe turns. Aisles shall
be at least 3 feet wider than the widest vehicle used or most common
material being transported.
Adequate illumination shall be provided to ensure safe working conditions
- Portable lamps shall have UL approved plugs, handles, sockets,
guards, and cords for normal working conditions.
- For work in boilers, condensers, tanks, turbines, or other grounded
locations that are wet or may cause excessive perspiration, a low
voltage lighting system should be used, either from a battery system
or low-voltage lighting unit. In situations where these lighting
systems are not available, a vapor-proof 110 volt lighting system
shall be used.
- Flashlights for use near energized electrical equipment and circuitry
shall have insulated cases.
- At least 50 foot-candles of illumination shall be provided at all
work stations. However, fine work may require 100 foot-candles or
more. This can be obtained with a combination of general lighting
plus supplemental lighting.
- Exits and Exit Markings
- Every exit shall have "EXIT" in plain legible letters
not less than 6 inches high with the strokes of the letters
not less than three-quarters of an inch wide.
- Doors, passageways, or stairways which are neither exits
nor ways to an exit (but may be mistaken for an exit) shall
be clearly marked "NOT AN EXIT" or by a sign indicating
their actual use, for example: "STORAGE ROOM" or "BASEMENT."
- When the direction to the nearest exit may not be apparent
to an occupant, an exit sign with an arrow indicating direction
shall be used.
- Exit access shall be arranged so it is unnecessary to travel
toward any area of high hazard potential in order to reach
the nearest exit (unless the path of travel is effectively
shielded by suitable partitions or other physical barriers).
- Exit signs shall be clearly visible from all directions of
egress and shall not be obstructed at any time. If occupancy
is permitted at night, or if normal lighting levels are reduced
at times during working hours, exit signs shall be suitably
illuminated by a reliable light source.
- A door from a room to an exit or to a way of exit access
will be the side-hinged swinging type. It will swing out in
the direction of travel if 50 or more persons occupy the room
or the exit is from an area of high hazard potential.
- Areas around exit doors and passageways shall be free of
obstructions. The exit route shall lead to a public way. No
lock fastening device shall be used to prevent escape from
inside the building.
- Where occupants may be endangered by the blocking of any
single exit due to fire or smoke, there shall be at least two
means of exit remote from each other.
- Exits, exterior steps, and ramps shall be adequately lighted
to prevent mishaps. Separate lighting will not be required
if street or other permanent lighting gives at least one foot-candle
of illumination on the exit, steps, or ramp.
Good housekeeping shall be maintained in all shops, yards, buildings,
and mobile equipment. Supervisors are responsible for good housekeeping
in or around the work they are supervising. As a minimum, the following
requirements shall be adhered to:
- Material shall not be placed where anyone might stumble over
it, where it might fall on someone, or on or against any support
unless the support can withstand the additional weight.
- Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear of tripping hazards.
- Nails shall be removed from loose lumber or the points turned
- Ice shall be removed from all walkways and work areas where
it may create a hazard or interfere with work to be done. If
ice cannot be removed readily, sand or other approved materials
shall be applied.
- Trash and other waste materials shall be kept in approved receptacles.
Trash shall not be allowed to accumulate and shall be removed
and disposed of as soon as practicable, at least once per shift
(or more often if needed).
- Disconnect switches, distribution panels, or alarm supply boxes
shall not be blocked by any obstruction which may prevent ready
- Machinery and equipment shall be kept clean of excess grease
and oil and (operating conditions permitting) free of excessive
dust. Pressure gauges and visual displays shall be kept clean,
visible, and serviceable at all times. Drip pans and wheeled
or stationary containers shall be cleaned and emptied at the
end of each shift.
- Fire Prevention
All Physical Plant personnel shall receive fire prevention training
as part of their general training.
- Supervisors in charge of operations where fuels, solvents, or other
flammable liquids are used shall be constantly alert for hazards
and unsafe acts. Fuels such as gasoline shall never be used to clean
floors or clothing, and open solvent or gasoline containers shall
not be kept near electrical equipment. The use of low flashpoint
petroleum solvents shall be avoided whenever possible. Open flames,
open element heaters, equipment not properly grounded, and nonexplosion-proof
electrical equipment used in the presence of flammable or combustible
liquids shall be avoided.
- Fire extinguishers of at least 20 BC or greater rating shall be
installed in shop areas. The number of extinguishers depends upon
the size and layout of the facility. Fire extinguishers shall meet
the following OSHA requirements:
- Be kept fully charged and in their designated area.
- Be located along normal paths of travel.
- Not be obstructed or obscured from view.
- Be visually inspected at least monthly to ensure that
- Are in their designated places.
- Have not been tampered with or actuated.
- Do not have corrosion or other impairments.
- Are accessible and not obstructed.
- Be examined at least yearly and/or recharged
or repaired to ensure operability and safety.
- Be hydrostatically tested.
- Be placed so the maximum travel distance, unless
there are extremely hazardous conditions, does
not exceed 75 feet for Class A or 50 feet for Class
- Supervisors shall ensure that employees remove construction debris
and rubbish from the job site upon completion of the job, or daily
if extended beyond one day. Hazardous materials shall not be left
at job sites unless properly stored. Work being performed on job
sites shall not endanger building occupants (e.g., exits blocked,
fire alarm devices disconnected, etc.).
- Material Storage
All unnecessary accumulation of materials and supplies
in the shop area shall be avoided. The presence of unnecessary material
shop could cause such incidents as tripping, falling, or slipping.
This could be especially hazardous around equipment that is in operation.
The only material in the shop area shall be that actually in work.
The only place that materials should accumulate in quantity are in
storerooms and material holding areas.
- The storage of materials shall not, of itself, create
a hazard. Materials stored in tiers shall be stacked, strapped,
blocked or interlocked, and limited in height so they are
stable and secure against sliding or collapse. Storage
racks shall have sufficient capacity to bear the loads
imposed on them.
- Stored materials shall not obstruct fire extinguishers,
alarm boxes, sprinkler system controls, electrical switch
boxes, machine operations, emergency lighting, first aid
or emergency equipment, or exits.
- Heavy materials and equipment should be stored low and
close to the ground or floor to reduce the possibility
of injury during handling.
- All passageways and storerooms shall be maintained clean,
unobstructed, dry, and in sanitary condition. Spills will
be promptly removed.
- Where mechanical handling equipment, such as lift trucks
are used, safety clearance shall be provided for aisles
at loading docks, through doorways, and wherever turns
or passages must be made. No obstructions that could create
a hazard are permitted in aisles.
Use of Tools
- Incidents at the job site involving hand tools are usually
the result of misuse. Hand tools are precision tools capable
of performing many jobs when used properly. Prevention
of incidents involving hand tools on the job site becomes
a matter of good instruction, adequate training, and proper
- Hand tool safety requires that the tools be of
good quality and adequate for the job. All tools
shall be kept in good repair and maintained by qualified
- When personnel use hand tools while they are working
on ladders, scaffolds, platforms, or work stands,
they shall use carrying bags for tools which are
not in use. Workers shall not drop tools.
- Racks, shelves, or tool boxes shall be provided
for storing tools which are not in use.
- Supervisors shall frequently inspect all hand tools used in
the operation under their supervision. Defective tools shall be
immediately removed from service. Some common tool defects are:
- Handles When handles of hammers, axes, picks, or sledges
become cracked, split, broken, or splintered, they shall
be immediately replaced. Tool handles shall be well-fitted
and securely fastened by wedges or other acceptable means.
Wedges, always used in pairs, shall be driven into the
handle when repairing a sledgehammer or maul, to prevent
the head from accidentally flying off if the handle shrinks.
- Tangs Files, wood chisels, and other tools with tangs
shall be fitted and used with suitable handles covering
the end of the tang. Ends of the handles shall not be used
for pounding or tapping.
- Mushroom Heads Cold chisels, punches, hammers, drift
pins, and other similar tools have a tendency to mushroom
from repeated poundings. They shall be dressed down as
soon as they begin to crack and curl.
- When dressing tools, a slight bevel of about three-sixteenths
of an inch shall be grounded around the head. This
will help prevent the heads from mushrooming.
- When tool heads mushroom, the material is highly
crystallized and, with each blow of the hammer, fragments
are likely to break off.
- Portable Power Tools Portable power tools increase mobility
and convenience but are frequently more hazardous to use
than their stationary counterparts. Personnel who are required
to use portable power tools in their work shall be thoroughly
trained in safe operating practices. Safe operating procedure
shall be set up for each type of tool consistent with the
- Use of Compressed Air Sources
- Compressed air has the appearance of a relatively harmless gas.
However, to avoid accidents, compressed air must be used correctly.
The improper or inadvertent connection of items not designed for
shop air pressure, i.e., equipment, storage vessels, or containers,
to a shop air supply may cause serious personal injury and more
than likely will damage the item being connected.
- The maximum air pressure approved for general use in the shops
and laboratories is 30 psi (pounds per square inch). This pressure
is sufficient for most shop and laboratory operations and is not
significantly hazardous. Use discretion and good judgement when
using compressed air, even at this low pressure.
- The following rules and practices are suggested to avoid personal
injury, equipment damage, and potential environmental impact:
- All personnel assigned to shops with air compressors
shall be familiar with compressor operating and maintenance
- Compressed air is not to be used to blow dirt, chips,
or dust from clothing.
- Air compressors shall be maintained strictly in accordance
with the manufacturer's instructions.
- Do not use compressed air to transfer materials from
containers when there is a possibility of exceeding
the safe maximum allowable working pressure of the
- The maximum working pressure of compressed air lines
shall be identified in psi. Pipeline outlets shall
be tagged or marked showing maximum working pressure
immediately adjacent to the outlet.
- Do not use compressed air to transfer materials from
standard 55-gallon drums. Use a siphon with a bulk
aspirator on a pump. WARNING It is dangerous to pressurize
any container not designed for that purpose.
- Never use compressed air where particles can be accelerated
by the air stream.
- Do not use compressed air to clean machinery or parts
unless absolutely necessary. Where possible, use a
brush. If necessary, use a minimum pressure and provide
barriers or clean the area of personnel. Wear goggles
to protect your eyes.
- Never apply compressed air to any part of a person's
- Do not use a compressed air line that does not have
a pressure regulator for reducing the line pressure.
- Keep the hose length between tool housing and the
air source as short as possible.
- Where possible, attach a short length of light chain
between the hose and the housing on air-operated tools.
This keeps the hose from whipping should the hose-tool
- Inspect air supply and tool hoses before using. Discard
and label unfit hoses. Repair hoses where applicable.
- Turn valve off and vent pressure from a line before
connecting or disconnecting it. Never work on a pressurized
- Do not connect air supply respirators or supplied-air
suits to the compressed air supply system of any building.
Such compressed air is unsafe to breathe.
- Do not attach pneumatic tools, process, or control
instruments to breathing air lines. The potential contamination
to personnel and systems is hazardous.
- Working Safely at Elevations
These procedures are designed to prevent the injury of Hope College
personnel due to falls or slips any time personnel are working on
portable stairs, ladders, or scaffolding, or at elevations or more
than four (4) feet above grade. Applicable OSHA standards include
29 CFR 1910.21-.68.
Falls are the primary hazard associated with the use
of ladders. Falls result from a number of unsafe acts
and conditions such as:
- Ladders being set on unstable surfaces.
- Personnel reaching too far out to the sides.
- Personnel standing too high to maintain balance.
- Personnel using defective ladders (e.g., broken
rails, rungs, missing hardware).
These hazards are minimized if workers adhere to proper
ladder safety practices and if supervisors ensure equipment
is used, inspected, and maintained in good condition.
Tasks which require frequent use of ladders and involve
significant climbing effort must be accomplished by
workers capable of the physical exertion required under
Portable ladders procured for Hope College
shall meet the design and construction specification
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.25 for wood ladders and 29 CFR 1910.26
for metal ladders. Portable ladders constructed of
reinforced plastic shall meet the specifications of
- Allowable Lengths
The maximum allowable lengths of portable ladders are:
36 feet - with min overlap of 3 feet
- Wooden Ladders
Wooden parts used in construction of ladders should be straight-grained; thoroughly
seasoned; smoothly dressed; and free of sharp edges, splinters, checks, decay
and other defects. Rungs must be parallel, level and uniformly spaced. The
spacing shall not be more than 12 inches. Wooden ladders will be coated with
a suitable protective coating such as boiled linseed oil, clear varnish or
clear lacquer. Wood ladders shall not be painted with an opaque coating, since
possible defects may be covered up.
- Nonslip Bases
Portable ladders shall be equipped with nonslip
bases such as safety feet or spikes, depending upon
the type of usage.
- Electrical Personnel shall not use portable metal
ladders when performing work on or near electrical
equipment. The side rails of metal ladders will be
stenciled in 2-inch (or smaller is necessary to fit
on the side rails) red letters: "DANGER - DO
NOT USE AROUND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT." Wood or
reinforced plastic ladders shall be used for work
on or near electrical equipment. They will be kept
clean. Remove all surface buildup or dirt, grease,
or oils to avoid creating a ready path for electrical
- Care of Ladder
- Handle ladders with care. Do not drop,
jar or misuse them.
- Ladders shall be stored in a manner that
will provide easy access for inspection
and will permit safe withdrawal for use.
They shall not be stored in a manner that
presents a tripping hazard not where they
can fall on someone. They should be stored
in a manner that will prevent sagging.
- Lubricate metal bearings of locks, wheels,
pulleys, etc., as required to keep them
- Replace frayed or badly worn rope.
- Keep safety feet and other parts in good
condition to ensure they work.
- Maintain ladders in good usable condition.
Inspect ladders prior to use.
- Ladders with defects which cannot be immediately
repaired, shall be removed from service
for repair or destruction, and shall be
tagged with a danger tag. Do not attempt
to straighten or use a bent ladder made
of reinforced plastic.
- Rungs or steps on metal ladders that are
not corrugated, knurled, or dimpled will
have skid-resistant materials applied.
- Proper Use of Ladders
- The correct procedures for using ladders are as follows:
- Where possible, portable nonself-supporting
ladders will be used at such a pitch that the
base of the ladder is placed a distance from the
vertical wall that is one-fourth of the working
length of the ladder. The ladder shall be placed
to prevent slipping, or it will be lashed or manually
held in position.
- Ladders shall not be used by more than one person
at a time. Ladders specially designed to support
greater loads shall be used in combination with
ladder jacks and scaffold planks when an operation
requires more than one person.
- Place portable ladders so that the side rails
have a secure footing. The top rest for portable
rung and cleat ladders will be reasonably rigid
and will have adequate strength to support the
- Ladders shall not be placed in front of doors
opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked
open, locked, or guarded.
- Do not place ladders on boxes, barrels, or other
unstable bases to obtain additional height.
- To support the top of the ladder at a window
opening, attach a board across the back of the
ladder, extending across the window to provide
firm support against the building walls or window
- When ascending or descending, users shall face
the ladder and use both hands.
- Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs,
or cleats, broken side rails, or other defects
shall not be used. Do not make improvised repairs.
- Do not splice short ladders together to provide
- Do not use ladders made by fastening cleats
across a single rail.
- Do not use ladders as guys, braces, skids, horizontal
platforms or scaffolds, or for other than their
- Do not use a ladder to aid access to a roof
unless the top of the ladder extends at least
3 feet above the point of support, at eave, gutter,
or roof line.
- Always raise extension ladders so that the upper
section overlaps and rests on the bottom section.
The upper section will always overlap on the climbing
side of the extension ladder.
- Nonslip bases are not intended as a substitute
for care in safely placing, lashing, or holding
a ladder that is being used upon oily, metal,
concrete, or slippery surfaces.
- The bracing on the back legs of step ladders
is designed solely for increasing stability and
not for climbing.
- Hooks may be attached at or near the top of
portable ladders to provide added stability.
- When the ladder can be knocked over by others
who are working in the area, the ladder will be
securely fastened. As an alternative, someone
will be assigned to steady the bottom, or the
area around the ladder will be roped off.
- Workers shall not stand higher that the third
rung/ step from the ladder top and shall not attempt
to reach beyond a normal arm's length.
- Scaffolding and Elevated Platforms
- Only tube and coupler or tubular welded frame
scaffolding shall be used by Hope College personnel.
It shall be erected according to OSHA standards,
as specified in 29 CFR 1910.22, .23, and .28.
- All platforms
or scaffolds shall
be inspected by
shall be surrounded
by a standard guardrail, securely fastened
to a stationary object, and have a floor
capable of withstanding
a working load of
per square foot.
with wheels constructed
base (bottom) section shall not be used
unless all wheels
are intact and at
least one wheel
on each side is locked to prevent movement.
- The following are
- Know scaffolding safety rules prior to set up, during operations,
and for dismantling of scaffolding. Ensure manufacturer's instructions
and safety warnings are legible and remain on scaffolding.
- Inspect the equipment before use for damage or deterioration.
- Keep equipment in good repair.
- Inspect erected scaffolds regularly to ensure they are maintained
in a safe condition.
- Provide adequate sills and posts and use base plates.
- Anchor wall scaffolds securely between structure and scaffold.
- Use caution when working near power lines. Never be any closer
than 10 feet to electrical power lines.
- Use adjusting screws instead of blocking to adjust for uneven
grades. Use outriggers where so equipped.
- Equip all planked areas with proper guard rails and toe-boards.
- Do not ride rolling scaffolding.
- Do not leave materials and equipment on the platform when moving
- Do not try to move rolling scaffolding without help.
- Do not extend adjusting screws over 12 inches.
- Do not let working platform height exceed four times the smallest
base dimension unless guyed or otherwise stabilized.
- Do not overload scaffold.
- Do not use ladders or makeshift devices on top of scaffolds
to increase height.
- Ensure the footing and anchorage for scaffolds are sound, rigid,
and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling
or displacement. Do not use unstable objects such as barrels,
boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks, etc., to support scaffolds
- Rooftop Work
If the rooftop to be worked on is not provided
with an adequate guardrail, the following
procedures shall apply:
No employee shall come within 10 feet of
the roof's edge without wearing a lifebelt
or harness securely attached to a securely
anchored rope or line, with the entire system
being capable of supporting a minimum dead
weight of 5,400 pounds.
No employee shall work on the rooftop if
the windspeed exceeds 20 miles per hour.
- Shoring and Trenching
The walls and faces of excavations and trenches over 5 feet, where workers
may be exposed to danger, shall be guarded by a shoring system, sloping of
the ground, or some other equivalent means. Trenches less than 5 feet deep
with hazardous soil conditions also shall be effectively protected.
The following guidelines are provided:
- Appropriate trench boxes and/or shields may be used in lieu of shoring
- Tools, equipment, an excavated material shall be kept 2 feet or more
from the lip of the trench. Where employees are required to be in or work
in trenches 4 feet deep or more, an adequate means of exit such as ladders
or steps shall be provided within 25 feet of travel and used.
- Daily inspections shall be made of trenches and excavations by the supervisor
in charge to ensure adequate slopes, shoring and bracing, and that there
is no evidence of possible slides or cave-ins. More frequent inspections
may be necessary as work progresses or after inclement weather conditions,
such as rain, or where loose compacted or unstable materials are present.
- Workers shall take extra care when hand excavating in close proximity
to utilities to preclude interruption of services an personnel injury and/or
equipment damage which can result from breaking electrical, gas, and steam
Whenever a common area is disturbed by maintenance, repair, or construction
operations and presents a hazard to personnel working in or near, or traveling
through the area, care shall be taken to warn these personnel and other engineering
services personnel of the potential hazard. Appropriate barriers shall be erected
around excavations, open manholes, open electrical panels, etc., whenever they
are to be left unattended.
30 Electrical Installations and Equipment
The extreme hazard of electrical equipment
is the potential for personnel electrocution
from contacting energized systems. Electrical
equipment can also cause catastrophic property
damage because of its potential as an ignition
source for causing fire or explosion.
Fire is frequently caused by short circuits,
overheating equipment and failure of current
limiters, thermal sensors, and other safety
devices. Explosions may occur when flammable
liquids, gases, and dusts are exposed to ignition
sources generated by electrical equipment.
- Electrical installations and utilization equipment
will be in accordance with the current edition
of the National Electrical Code, National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA 70); American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard C1. This
code will also apply to every replacement, installation,
or utilization equipment.
- Equipment or facilities designed, fabricated
for, and intended for use by CDC will be procured
to meet the requirements of the National Electric
- Frames of all electrical equipment, regardless
of voltage shall be grounded.
- Exposed non-current
carrying metal parts
of electrical equipment
that may be come
energized under abnormal
be grounded in accordance
with the National
insure that work areas
are inspected for possible
shall be provided and
maintained around electric
equipment to permit
safe operations and
maintenance of such
- Control of Hazardous
The procedures specified
in this section comply
with the requirements
for the isolation or
control of hazardous
energy sources set forth
in the OSHA standard
(29 CFR 1910.147 - proposed).
The accidental release
of energy during maintenance
work can and frequently
does cause severe injuries,
amputations, and death.
Energy can be present
in the form of electricity,
potential energy (due
to gravity) stored in
elevated masses, chemical
toxicity, or pressure.
The only exceptions
allowed by OSHA to these
requirements are those
situations involving "hot
tap" operations. For
this exception to be
valid, the Hope College
personnel involved must
demonstrate that the
continuity of services
is essential, that shutdown
of the energy source
is impractical, and that
procedures and special
equipment have been implemented
that will provide proven
These procedures apply
to all maintenance or
conducted at Hope College
- Tag-out Devices
to energy isolating
devices are warning
devices that do
not provide the
on those devices
that a lock would
provide. Any tag
so attached to
an energy isolating
device must not
be removed without
the person attaching
it, and it must
never be bypassed,
ignored, or otherwise
must be legible
in order to be
must be made of
tags must be securely
attached to energy
so that they cannot
use. Tag-out devices
must be substantial
enough to prevent
must warn against
if the machine
or equipment is
energized and must
warnings such as:
DO NOT START
DO NOT ENERGIZE
DO NOT OPEN
DO NOT OPERATE
DO NOT CLOSE
solid "blind" in
circumstances will "bumper
jacks" or "scissor
All mechanical motion is potentially hazardous. Motion hazards, such as rotating devices, cutting or shearing blades, in-running nip points, reciprocating parts, linear moving belts and pulleys, meshing gears, and uncontrolled movement of failing parts, are examples of motion and peculiar to any one machine or job operation. Personnel working within areas where they are exposed to machinery or equipment hazards must be aware of the potential for accidents. Machine operators and others are exposed to moving parts and can get clothing or body parts caught in the machinery.
- Personnel Training
Personnel should be trained to safely operate each machine they
will be required to use; to recognize potential accident producing
situations; and to know what to do when hazards are discovered.
Only personnel who have been thoroughly trained, or those who
are undergoing supervised on-the-job training on the equipment,
will be permitted to operate machinery.
- Personal Protective Equipment
- Eye protection or face shields will be worn by all personnel
within areas where machines are operated.
- Loose fitting clothing,
neckties, rings, bracelets, or other apparel that may become
entangled in moving machinery will
not be worn by machine operators or their helpers.
nets or caps will be worn to keep long hair away from moving
- Gloves will not be worn where there is a chance
of them being caught in machinery.
- Ear plugs or muffs will
be used when required for worker protection.
- The Office of
Health and Safety should be contacted to assist supervisors
in determining personnel protective equipment
- Machines designed for fixed locations will normally be securely
fastened to the floor or other suitable foundation to eliminate
all movement or "walking." Machines equipped with
rubber feet, non-skid foot pads, or similar vibration dampening
materials will be installed according to the manufacturer's
recommendations. Machines that have the potential of tipping
or falling over will be firmly secured.
- Machines that develop
fine dust and fumes will be equipped with effective exhaust
hoods, connected to an effective exhaust
system. An interlocking device should be installed to link
the machine's power supply and the exhaust system to prevent
the operation of machines without the exhaust system operating.
will never be left unattended with the power on unless the
worker is operating more than one machine in a
battery of machines. In this latter instance, the clear zone
will be appropriately marked to include all machines in the
- No attempt will be made to clean any part
of a machine until the moving parts have come to a complete
not be removed from machinery by hand. Hand brushes should
be used but compressed air may be used when reduced to less
than 30 psi and then only with effective chip guarding and
personal protective equipment.
- Brushes, swabs, lubricating
rolls, and automatic or manual pressure guns will be used by
operators to lubricate material,
punches, or dies. This equipment will be used so that operators
are not required to reach into the point of operation or
other hazardous area.
- Floors will be kept in good repair and free of chips, dust,
metal scraps, and other slipping and tripping hazards.
containers will be emptied daily or more often, if necessary,
to prevent excessive waste accumulations.
- All materials, including
usable scrap, will be stored so that they will not present
- Drip pans will be used whenever equipment must be
oiled. Machinery will not be in motion when being lubricated
lubrication is automatic or a long gravity flow spout is
used, enabling the oiler to remain in the clear while performing
- Material Handling
- Trucks used for scrap disposal will not be overloaded, and
scrap will not extend beyond the ends or sides of trucks.
- When materials are of a weight or size which makes manual
lifting hazardous, mechanical handling equipment will be used.
- When maintenance or repair is needed, machines will be completely
shut down and the control switch(es) locked and tagged in the "OFF" position.
- Cutting tools will be kept sharp and forming tools well dressed
and free from accumulations of chips, dust, and other foreign
matter. Where two or more cutting tools are used in one cutting
head, they will be properly adjusted and balanced.
- Damaged cutting tools will be removed from service and will
not be used until repaired.
- Machines will be used only for work within the rated capacity
specified by the machine manufacturer.
- Machines will be maintained so that while running at full
or idle speed, with the largest cutting tool attached, they
are free of excessive vibration.
- Machines will be completely stopped before attempting to
clear jammed work or debris.
- No saw blade, cutter head, or tool collar will be placed or
mounted on a machine arbor, unless it has been accurately sized
and shaped to fit the arbor.
- Electrical Safeguards
- The motor "START" button will be protected against
accidental/inadvertent operation. "START" buttons
will not be wedged for continuous operation.
- The wiring and grounding of machinery will be in accordance
with the National Electric Code.
- Each machine will have a positive electrical disconnect or
isolation switch which can be locked out.
- Electrically driven machines will be equipped with undervoltage
protective systems to preclude automatic restart after either
a power failure or other undervoltage condition.
- Foot pedal mechanisms will be located and guarded so that
they cannot be activated by falling objects or other accidental
means. A pad with a non-slip contact area will be firmly attached
to the pedal.
- Controls will be available to the workers at their
operating positions so that they do not reach over moving
parts of the
equipment. Control functions will be identified by printed
words and color coding. Controls will not be wedged for continuous
- Power controls must have a way of locking out electrical
power. Disconnecting or isolating switches will be mounted
on a visible side of, or near, the machine and will be used
to lock out power to the machine during repairs or adjustments.
When the power is locked out, the isolating switch will be
Many accidents are caused by machinery that is improperly guarded or
not guarded at all. Important factor that must be kept in mind relative
to machinery guarding is that no mechanical motion that threatens
a worker's safety should be left without a safeguard.
The following areas of machinery will be provided with barriers
and/or enclosures that will effectively prevent personnel from
coming in contact with moving components:
- Point of operation exposures such as blades, knives and cutting
- Power transmission exposures such as belts, pulleys, shaft,
- Top, bottom and backside exposures, such as the underside
of table saws and the wheels on band saws.
- When a point-of-operation
guard cannot be used because of unusual shapes or cuts, jigs
or fixtures which will provide equal safety
for the operator will be used. Upon completion of an unusual
operation, the guard will be immediately replaced.
- Whenever a
guard is removed for other than an operational requirement, the
machine will be shut down and the control switch(es) locked
and tagged in the "OFF" position.
- Guards will be affixed
to the machine. Where possible, they will be of the hinged
type to enhance maintenance or adjustments.
50 PLUMBING MAINTENANCE
Plumbing maintenance normally includes the installation, preventive
maintenance, and repair ofbwater supply systems, sewage and water disposal
systems, natural liquified petroleum gas and (LPG) or other gas supply
systems (to include gas appliances), and oxygen supply systems.These
systems and the maintenance of them contribute to the total well-being
of Hope College facilities. Hazards that may be encountered during plumbing
maintenance include, but are not limited to, entry into an oxygen deficient
atmosphere (confined space), fire or explosion by introducing an ignition
or flame source into a hazardous environment, falls, cave-in of excavated
area, burns from heat producing equipment, strains and sprains of the
back or other muscle group, and cuts and/or bruises. Working in confined
spaces, handling heavy and awkward materials, being subjected to numerous
obstructions in limited working space, and health related hazards are
conducive to producing accidents. Plumbing maintenance workers need
to be knowledgeable of these potential hazards and conditions and take
reasonable actions to prevent incidents before they occur.
- Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment worn during plumbing maintenance operations
normally consists of eye and/or face protection, work or chemical
resistant gloves, and safety-toe shoes. A bump cap or hard hat may
be required under conditions that could result in head injuries,
e.g., work in manholes and in close spaces with low overhead pipe
or other obstructions. Eye or face protection is required while working
plumbing connections, with chemicals, or where an eye hazard could
exist while using tools or machines, and while working on pressure
- Hot Operations
- Torches and Furnaces
Only essential fire prevention items pertaining to the operation
of blowtorches and plumber's furnaces are included. Work and
storage areas for this equipment shall be well ventilated.
- No one shall be permitted to use a torch or furnace until
the user is trained on its use and is familiar with the operating
- Where flammable or explosive vapors or dust may be present,
torches and furnaces shall not be used until the atmosphere
has been vented and the sources of such vapors or dust removed.
- Gasoline blowtorches and furnaces shall not be used in
small, unventilated spaces since they could cause explosions.
Acetylene gas shall never be brought in contact with metal
powders such as copper or silver as the combination may produce
flashes which can ignite explosive atmospheres.
- Combustible materials in locations where torches or furnaces
are to be used shall be protected or kept far enough away to
prevent their being subjected to sparks or dangerous temperatures.
Appropriate fire extinguishers shall be available.
- Soldering and Brazing
Soldering and brazing is the
joining of metal parts by melting a fusible alloy.
When solders used have
a melting point above 800 degrees F, the procedure
is called brazing.
- Improper equipment and/or unsafe practices may
cause lead poisoning, irritation from fluxes, burns,
electric shock, or fires.
- The concentration of toxic fumes and irritants
at the breathing level of the operation shall be
checked. Where required because of toxic fumes,
a respirator or adequate ventilation shall be provided.
Lead-tin, zinc, silver, cadmium, and antimony-tin
solders can pose moderate to serious health hazards.
Soldering, particularly with lead-tin, in a confined
space where ventilation is not adequate to remove
toxic fumes may require the use of a self-contained
breathing device. The Office of Health and Safety
shall be consulted for evaluation of potential
health hazards and recommendations on respiratory
protection during welding, soldering, and brazing
- Electric soldering irons shall be grounded unless
of double insulation construction. All soldering
irons shall be placed in suitable non-combustible
receptacles when not in use.
- When required, "Open Flame" permits shall
be obtained for these operations.
- Appropriate safety
eyewear shall be worn during all soldering and brazing
- Open Storm Drains
Plumbing personnel are not likely to come in contact
with the hazards associated with sewer systems while
working on open storm drains. However, there are
certain hazards associated with that type of drainage
system. Some of these hazards and their associated
- Manhole covers
Manhole covers are heavy and closely fitted to
the manhole opening. Never attempt to lift a
cover without using proper pry bar tools, special
lifting tools, and additional help where needed.
Ensure fingers and toes do not remain under manhole
covers when putting them down.
Insects, animals, and snakes have been known to
nest or den in storm drains. Hazards encountered
- Stings from wasps, spiders, and ants that
could lead to toxic shock.
- Bites from
animals that could lead to rabies.
- Bites from
poisonous snakes that could be
fatal or cause gangrene.
Prior to working in storm drains, inspect and
clear the drains of dangerous insects, animals,
or snakes. Seek assistance from an exterminator
or County Animal Control Department when necessary.
Wear proper protective clothing, hard hats,
boots, and gloves while working in storm drains.
- Gas Systems
Maintenance of gas systems include natural gas,
LPG, and oxygen. Shop personnel shall be familiar
with the properties of the gases in the systems
they maintain. Until proved otherwise, all
escaping gases shall be considered flammable.
Prior to entering an area where a gas leak
is suspected, the area shall be properly vented
and purged of existing gas. Personnel entering
the area shall be suited with proper protective
clothing and self-contained breathing devices.
For oxygen deficient atmospheres, air supply
systems with a special emergency escape air
supply are required and shall be used. Tools
used to repair leaks in or perform maintenance
on gas lines shall be spark-free and protective
clothing shall be static-free. When working
on oxygen dispensing lines, workers shall not
use tools and equipment that are coated with
lubricating substances or grease.
- Tunnels, Pits, and Sumps
- Where shop personnel are required to work in
utility tunnels, pits, and sumps, the atmospheric
conditions shall be checked for explosive atmosphere
or oxygen deficiency before allowing them to
enter. Personnel shall be suited with proper
protective clothing and respiratory protective
devices, when required, while performingmaintenance
to underground utilities. All tunnels, pits,
or sumps known to be contaminated shall be tagged
or identified for the information of work crews.
Workers shall be assigned in pairs for work performed
on underground utilities and all known contaminated
tunnels, pits, and sumps shall be ventilated
while work is in progress.
- When a manhole or vault is open, at least one member
of the crew shall be stationed at the surface. This
person shall not, under normal circumstances, leave
for any purpose.
NOTE: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL A PERSON ENTER A SUBSURFACE
STRUCTURE FOR ANY REASON WITHOUT A SECOND PERSON TO ACT
AS A GUARD AND TO OBTAIN ASSISTANCE IN THE EVENT OF AN
In areas where removal of a victim would be difficult,
an approved lifeline, equipped with a wrist harness,
shall be worn by the person entering the area to facilitate
rapid removal in case of an emergency.
- Compressed Air
Plumbing workers should be trained and authorized
to inspect, maintain, or install compressed air
systems. Before opening a compressed air line,
workers shall ensure the line has been completely
drained of existing air to prevent a sudden release
of air which will cause the line to whip. The reverse
is also true; when personnel have installed a new
compressed air system, all parts of the system
shall be secured together before air is put into
the system. Workers shall wear eye and face protective
equipment while working on compressed air systems.
60 CARPENTRY AND STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
Personnel performing duties in carpentry and structural maintenance
are potentially exposed to a wide variety of hazards in many different
environments and locations. Potential hazards include exposures to flammable
and combustible adhesives, dusts, hazardous noise, eye hazards, working
at heights above ground level, lifting hazards, electric and pneumatic
power tools, and working with unfinished material which could expose
them to splinters. Many tasks are performed in areas of high pedestrian
traffic; therefore, an additional hazard of possible distraction from
the job task arises. Potential physical and health hazards can be effectively
controlled by proper work procedures and controls, and by using required
personal protective equipment.
- Workers shall not leave a woodworking machine running unattended
nor shall they attempt to clear, clean, or repair the machine while
it is operating. When maintenance is necessary, the machine shall
be completely shut down, its control switches locked and tagged
in the "OFF" position. Supervisors shall ensure that
periodic inspections are accomplished on all shop equipment. Chips
or dust shall never be removed from machinery by hand. Machine
guards shall not be removed or made inoperative except for authorized
maintenance. When guards are removed during machine repair, power
control switches shall be locked in the "OFF" position
and properly tagged. The machine shall remain locked until the
guards are replaced.
- Personal protective equipment worn while operating
machinery, equipment, and saws within the shop and on job sites
consists of eye protection, safety-toe shoes, and hearing protection.
Other safety related personal protective equipment are dust masks
where workers are exposed to dust at the point of operation.
The Office of Health and Fire Safety shall be consulted to determine
the need for dust masks. Hard hats are required on job sites
where the potential exists from being struck by falling object(s),
e.g., roofing and construction.
- See Section 20 of this chapter
for general guidance that applies to both carpentry and structural
maintenance work methods or
tools. The following specific guidance applies to table saws:
- Keep hands out of the line of cut when feeding table saws.
Use a push stick when close to the blade.
- Adjust saw to expose the least amount of saw blade above table
and material being cut.
- Always stand out of line of stock being ripped.
- Hold stock being
cut against a gauge when cutting with a circular table saw.
use the appropriate saw for the cut (it would be unsafe to rip
with a crosscut saw or to crosscut with a rip saw).
- Avoid crosscutting
long boards on a table saw.
- Never adjust the saw or fence gauge
while the saw is operating.. Designate the line of cut on the
table top with a permanent
mark when setting the gauge of a table saw without removing
- Always use a brush or stick to clean or scrape sawdust
from a saw.
- Ventilation Systems
Machines that develop fine dust or other airborne contaminants
shall be equipped with effective industrial exhaust ventilation.
In shops where small numbers of installed machines are not continuously
in operation, portable collection systems may be used.
Ducts and Pipes
These shall be constructed and sized to minimize clogging.
They shall discharge into an enclosed container.
Refuse shall be removed daily in all operations that are not
required to have an exhaust system or where the refuse cannot
be handled by an exhaust system.
- Storage and Handling of Lumber
- Storage areas for lumber and other building materials
can be potentially hazardous. For example, when lumber is stored
upright, precautions shall be taken to prevent it from falling
into aisles or passageways. Lumber stored in tiers shall be stacked,
blocked, and interlocked and the stacks shall be limited in height
so they are stable and secure against sliding or collapse. Furthermore,
storage areas shall be kept free of accumulations of materials
that constitute tripping, fire, or explosion hazards.
- When heavy
stock cannot be safely handled by workers, suitable mechanical
lifting devices shall be used.
- Gloves shall be worn by workers to
reduce injury potential to the hands from splinters or from being
pinched between the stacks.
The accidental movement of the stacked material can cause serious
injuries. Caution shall be taken not to disturb other tiers when
removing partial stacks for use.
- Manual handling is relatively
safe if the proper lifting and carrying positions are used. Balanced
handling is the key to
70 WELDING AND METAL FABRICATION
Welding, cutting and brazing operations present a series of hazardous
situations with potential exposure to burns, eye damage, electrical
shock, crushed toes and fingers, and the inhalation of vapors and
fumes. Many welding, cutting and brazing incidents in industry result
- Inadequately trained personnel.
- Poor housekeeping practices.
- Poor shop layout.
- Inadequate lighting and ventilation.
- Improper storage and movement of compressed
- Exposure of oxygen cylinders and fittings to oil or grease
creating a fire or explosive hazard.
- Pointing welding or cutting torches
at a concrete surface causing spattering and flying fragments of concrete.
- Electric shock when motors, generators and other electric welding equipment
are not grounded.
- Inhalation of toxic fumes or vapors from welding metals
- Fires, explosions, and injuries can occur resulting from:
- The proximity of combustible solids, liquids, or dusts.
- The presence
or development of possible explosive mixtures of flammable gases and
- The presence or nature of an oxygen-enriched atmosphere in locations where
hot work is performed. Cutters and welders, and other exposed personnel,
are also susceptible to eye injury from infrared light and ultraviolet radiation.
- Operating Precautions
The following provides minimum guidance on operating precautions and
- Provide ventilation in shops or rooms where work is to be performed
but avoid strong drafts directed at the welding work.
- Do not place
work to be welded or heated on a concrete floor. Concrete, when
heated, may splatter and fly exposing the welder
to possible burns and also throwing hot particles a considerable
- Provide appropriate protection for welders and
helpers when working on elevated surfaces. Welding areas shall
clean, and free from tripping hazards.
- Provide approved personal
protective equipment for welders who must enter confined spaces,
manholes or other space restricted
areas. Also, provide a means to ensure their quick removal
in case of an emergency.
- Do not perform cutting and welding
operations in sprinklered buildings when the sprinkler system
is inoperable; in explosive
atmospheres or where explosive atmospheres may develop; or,
within 50 feet of storage of large quantities of exposed, readily
- Before lighting the torch for the first
time each day, allow enough of each gas to flow through its respective
hose to purge
any flammable gas mixture. Purge hoses in open spaces and away
from ignition sources. Light the torch with a friction lighter
or stationary pilot flame keeping a safe distance between he
torch and the welder's hands. Point the torch away from persons
or combustible materials when lighting. Do not attempt to light
a torch from hot metal.
- When working in a confined space, the
fuel gas and oxygen supply shall be located outside the confined
space. The torch
and hose should be removed from confined spaces when not in
- Fuel gas and oxygen torch valves shall be closed
and the fuel gas and oxygen supply to the torch shall be shut
lunch or break periods, when not in use for extended periods,
and when unattended.
- Welding torch hoses must be protected from
damage by contact with hot metal, open flames, corrosive agents
or sharp edges.
Pressure on hoses will be released at the end of each workday.
Hoses must be visually inspected for damage at the beginning
of each shift. Hose showing leaks,cuts, burns, worn spots or
other evidence of deterioration must be repaired or replaced
prior to use. Replacement hoses or fittings must be approved
for use with acetylene equipment.
- Shielding shall be provided
to protect personnel from heat, sparks, slag, light, and radiation.
fire watch will be maintained for at least 30 minutes after completion
of cutting or welding operations to detect and extinguish
possible smoldering fires.
- Personal Protective Equipment
Key portions of OSHA Standard 1910.252 covering protective equipment
are included here. Personnel engaged in or exposed to welding, cutting,
or brazing activities will be provided and use personal protective
equipment to include eye and face protection, head protection when
in a hard hat
area, foot protection, and body, arm, and hand protection.
- Eye Protection
- Helmets shall be used during all arc welding or arc cutting operations.
Goggles should also be worn during arc welding or cutting operations
to provide protection from injurious rays from adjacent work, and from
flying objects. The goggles may have either clear or colored glass, depending
upon the amount of exposure to adjacent welding operations. Helpers or
attendants shall be provided with proper eye protection. Helmets shall
be arranged to protect the face, neck, and ears from direct radiant energy
from the arc.
- Goggles or other suitable eye protection shall be used during
all gas welding or oxygen cutting operations. Spectacles with side
shields and suitable filter lenses are permitted for use during gas welding
operations on light work, for torch brazing or for inspection. Goggles
shall be ventilated to prevent fogging of the lenses as much as practicable.
operators and attendants of resistance welding or resistance brazing
equipment shall use transparent face shields or goggles, depending
on the particular job, to protect their faces or eyes, as required.
protection in the form of suitable goggles shall be provided where
needed for brazing operations.
- Protective Clothing
- All welders should wear flame-resistant gauntlet gloves and
shirts with slee Sufficient length and construction to protect the arms
from heat, UV radiation, and sparks.
- All welders should wear fire-resistant
aprons, coveralls, and leggings.
- Clothing should be kept reasonably
free of oil or grease. Front pockets and upturned sleeves or cuffs
should be prohibited, and sleeves and
collars should be kept buttoned to prevent hot metal slag or
sparks from contacting the skin.
- Respiratory Protection
The Office of Health and Safety shall be consulted to determine appropriate
levels of respiratory protection to be worn by personnel performing welding
- Fire Prevention and Protection
- The welding operation environment shall be free of flammable
liquids and vapors. Combustible materials within a radius of 35
feet of the operation will be protected from activity residue (flame,
heat, sparks, slag, etc.).
- Fire watcher procedures shall be implemented
whenever welding activities are conducted within 35 feet of combustible
regardless of protection provided. A qualified individual proficient
in the operation of available fire extinguishing equipment and
knowledgeable of fire reporting procedures shall observe welding
or cutting activities. His or her duty is to detect and prevent
the spread of fire produced by welding or cutting activities.
there are cracks or other floor openings within 35 feet of the
welding or cutting that cannot be closed or covered,
precautions shall be taken to remove or otherwise protect combustible
materials on the floor below that may be exposed to sparks. The
same precautions shall be observed with regard to cracks or openings
in walls, open doorways, and open or broken windows.
- Fire extinguishing
equipment shall be maintained, ready for use, while welding or
cutting operations are being performed.
Equipment may consist of pails of water, buckets of sand, hose,
or portable extinguishers depending upon the nature and quantity
of the combustible material exposed.
- Where sprinkler protection
exists, it shall be in full service while welding or cutting work
is being performed. If welding
or cutting is to be done within three feet of automatic sprinkler
heads, noncombustible sheet material or damp cloth guards will
be used to temporarily shield the individual heads.
- Welding and Cutting Tanks, Cylinders, or Containers
The procedures described below apply only to tanks too small to be
entered. Compressed gas cylinders are excluded as are pipelines.
Cutting and welding on containers that have held flammable liquids
shall be under the direct supervision of knowledgeable personnel.
BEFORE any tank, cylinder, or other container is cut, welded, or
other hot work is performed, the item shall be purged or made
inert. New containers shall also be made inert as they amy contain
a flammable preservative which could form explosive vapors when
heated. Welders shall also ensure that there are no substances
such as grease, tars, or acids which, when subjected to heat,
might produce explosive or toxic vapors. Any pipe lines or connections
to the drums, cylinders, tanks, or other containers shall be
disconnected or blanked.
- Purging and Inerting
- Purging with Water
Where the liquid or gas previously contained is known to be
readily displaced or easily soluble in water, it can be removed
by completely filling the container with water and then draining.
When hot work is performed on containers filled with water,
extreme care shall be used to eliminate any vapor accumulation
by proper venting or positioning of the container during
the filling operation.
- Purging with Air
Hazardous vapors may be displaced from inside containers
by purging with air. A safe atmosphere shall be maintained
by continuous ventilation.
- Inerting with Gas
Inert gas may be used to displace flammable gas from the
container. Adequate ventilation shall be maintained during
the operation to ensure gas concentrations remain below
Examples of inert gases are carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
All hollow spaces, cavities, or containers shall be vented
to permit the escape of air or gases before and during
preheating, cutting, or welding.
- Arc Welding
- Arc welding equipment shall conform to the design and
installation criteria of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.252, "Welding, Cutting,
and Brazing." The frame or case of the welding machine (except
engine-driven machines) shall be grounded under the conditions
and according to the methods prescribed in OSHA Standard 1910,
Subpart S, "Electrical", and 1910.252.
- Before starting
operations, all connections to the arc welding machine shall be
checked. The work lead shall be firmly attached
to the work; contact surfaces of the magnetic work clamps shall
be free of metal splatter particles. Coiled welding cable shall
be spread out before use to avoid serious overheating and damage
to insulation. Work and electrode lead cables shall be inspected
for damage and wear before use. Cables with damaged insulation
or exposed conductors shall be replaced. Electrode cables shall
be joined and insulated in accordance with approved methods.
of the welding machine from shall be checked. Special attention
shall be given to the ground connections of portable
- Electrode holders, when not in use, shall be placed
where they cannot make electrical contact with persons, conducting
fuel, or compressed gas cylinders.
- When it is necessary to splice
cables to extend their length, only certified electricians shall
make the splices. Cables with
splices within 10 feet of the electrode holder shall not be used.
The welder shall not coil or loop welding electrode cables around
parts of their body.
- Welders shall not place welding cable and
other equipment where it will obstruct passageways, ladders, and
- Machines which have become wet shall be thoroughly
dried and tested before being used.
- When welders are working close
to one another on one structure
where they may touch the exposed parts of more than one electrode
holder simultaneously, the machines shall be connected to minimize
shock hazard as follows:
- All direct current (DC) machines shall be connected with the
- All alternating current (AC) machines shall be
connected to the same phase of the supply circuit and with the
- Resistance Welding
- Thermal Protection
Every pair of ignition tubes used in resistance welding equipment
shall be equipped with a thermal protection switch. When used
in a series-connected water line, a single switch shall be adequate
if related to the downstream tube.
- Control Safeguards
Controls, such as push buttons, foot switches, retraction,
and dual-schedule switches on portable guns, etc., shall be
arranged or guarded to prevent inadvertent activation.
Multi-gun welding machines shall be effectively guarded at
the point of operation. Devices such as an electronic eye,
latches, blocks, barriers, or two-hand controls shall be installed.
All chains, gears, operating bus linkage, and belts shall be
protected by adequate guards.
- Electrical Hazards
All external weld-initiating control circuits shall operate
on low voltage, not over 120 bolts for stationary equipment
and not over 36 volts for portable equipment. All electrical
equipment shall be suitably interlocked and insulated to prevent
access by unauthorized persons to live portions of the equipment.
Only non-ferrous welding clamps should be used to prevent magnetic
induction during actuation of the equipment.
- Welding in Confined Spaces
The guidance below has been extracted for OSHA 29 CFR 1910.252.
1.1. Confined space means a relatively small or restricted space
such as a tank, boiler, pressure vessel, mixing vat, sump, or pit.
Ventilation is a prerequisite to work in confined spaces. All welding
and cutting operations carried on in confined spaces shall be adequately
ventilated to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials, possible
oxygen deficiency, or explosive atmosphere. This applies not only
to the welder but also to helpers and other personnel in the immediate
vicinity. All air replacing that which is withdrawn shall be clear
and respirable. Oxygen shall never be used as makeup air.
2.2. In such circumstances where it is impossible to provide such
ventilation, respirators or hose masks approved for this purpose
by NIOSH/MSHA shall be used. In areas immediately hazardous to
life, hose masks with blowers or self-contained breathing apparatus
shall be used.
3.3. Where welding operations are carried on in a confined space
and where welders and helpers are provided with hose masks, hose
masks with blowers, or self-contained breathing apparatus, a worker
shall be stationed on the outside of the confined space to ensure
the safety of those working within.
4.4. When welding or cutting is being performed in any confined
space, the gas cylinders and welding machines shall be left on
the outside. Before operations are started, heavy portable equipment
mounted on wheels shall be securely blocked to prevent accidental
5.5. Where a welder must enter a confined space through a manhole
or other small opening, a means shall be provided for quick removal
of the worker in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines
are used for this purpose, they shall be attached to the welder's
body in a way that ensures his or her body cannot be jammed in
a small exit opening. A wrist harness assembly shall be used. An
attendant with a preplanned rescue procedure shall be stationed
outside to observe the welder at all times and shall be capable
of putting rescue operations into effect.
6.6. When arc welding is to be stopped for any substantial period
of time, such as during lunch or overnight, all electrodes shall
be removed from the holders and the holders carefully located so
accidental contact cannot occur. The machine shall be disconnected
from the power source.
7.7. When gas welding or cutting, the torch valves shall be closed
and the fuel-gas and oxygen supply to the torch positively shut
off at some point outside the confined area whenever the torch
is not to be used for a substantial period of time, such as during
lunch or overnight. Where practicable, the torch and hose shall
also be removed from the confined space.
8.8. All confined spaces shall be monitored for oxygen content,
combustible vapors, and toxic material prior to entry and periodically
throughout the operation. Periodic testing shall depend on the
type of space being entered.
The Office of Health and Fire Safety shall be consulted for guidance.
- Portable Gas Units
Portable gas welding, cutting, and brazing equipment must be of a type
approved for the use intended.
1.1. Cylinders of compressed gas must have pressure reducing regulators
2.2. Cylinders in use or in a transport must be stored in an upright
position and secured to prevent them from falling.
3.3. Pressure hoses shall be secured to prevent whipping.
4.4. Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept free of grease
and oil at all times.
5.5. Cylinders shall be kept away from external sources of heat
at all times.
6.6. Cylinders shall not be dropped of handled roughly. Cylinders
or welding sets in excess of 40 pounds total weight shall be transported
to and from work sites by push cart or motorized vehicle.
- Portable Electric Units
- Circuits shall be de-energized before testing, checking or transporting.
sets and other electrical welding equipment shall be grounded prior
- Rotary and polarity switches shall not be operated
while the equipment is under an electrical load.
- Arc welding equipment
shall be inspected periodically and inspected
prior to use following relocation. Power cables and electrode
holders shall be inspected prior to every use.
- Sheet Metal
- Machines shall be guarded in accordance with manufacturer's
- Supervisors shall ensure sharp metal is stored in
an area that will not pose a hazard to machine operators or personnel
through designated aisles.
- Work gloves shall always be worn when
working with metal and metal scraps.
- Hearing protection shall be
worn when working in designated hazardous noise areas with noise
sources operating or when using
hand tools labeled hazardous noise producers.
80 REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING MAINTENANCE
Refrigeration and air conditioning maintenance personnel, as with many
other Engineering Services activities, perform duties in many different
locations and environments. Not only must these workers be aware of
the hazards of the tasks they are performing, but also tasks being performed
around them. Potential hazards include hazardous noise, electrical hazards,
exposure to refrigerants, lifting hazards, and compressed gases and
cylinders. Potential physical and health hazards can be effectively
controlled by proper work procedures and controls, and by using required
personal protective equipment.
- General Requirements
- Equipment rooms where air conditioning equipment is installed
shall be kept free and clear of all trash and clutter which could
present tripping or fire hazards. Refrigerant piping shall be properly
insulted, both to improve operating efficiency and to prevent injury
to workers who may accidentally come in contact with it. Equipment
rooms are not normally designed for, nor intended for, storage
- All belts, pulleys, and rotating shafts shall be
guarded to prevent accidental contact. Large valve handle stems
present a bump or trip hazard shall be marked (color coded) for
- Electrical parts of the equipment and controls
shall have all covers and plates in place. Wiring shall be properly
to the equipment or structure.
- Storage and Handling
Storage and handling of cylinders of compressed gas refrigerants can
be a source of injury to workers.
- Workers shall ensure that containers are legibly marked
with the type of gas contained and stored with minimum intermingling
of types of refrigerant. Cylinders shall be stored separately
from flammable gases and oxygen.
- Where caps have been provided
for valve protection, they shall be kept in place at all times
until the cylinder is actually
in use. Valves shall be kept closed at all times except when
the cylinder is in use.
- Cylinders shall not be used as rollers
or supports. Their only use is to contain the gas.
containers, such as Department of Transportation (DOT) -2P,
DOT 2Q, and DOT 39 containers, shall not be refilled
with any material after use of the original contents, They
shall be disposed of in accordance with the container manufacturer's
or filler's instructions.
- Cylinders shall not be dragged,
slid, dropped, or allowed to strike each other or solid objects
violently. Whenever possible,
a suitable hand truck or roll platform shall be used.
shall never be lifted by the valve. Cylinders shall not be suspended
by chains, ropes, or slings unless the manufacturer
has provided appropriate attachment points.
- Storage areas shall
be legibly marked with the names of the gases being stored. Full
cylinders and empty cylinders shall
be segregated and the full ones arranged so the oldest stock
can be removed first with a minimum of handling. The storage
area shall be kept as dry as possible and away from exposure
to salt or other corrosive chemicals or materials. Cylinders
shall be secured by a metal securing device or rack specifically
designed to prevent damage.
- The rules above apply to all refrigeration
and air conditioning maintenance work centers that use and store
The fluorocarbons are relatively inert, in general are non-flammable,
and are low in toxicity.Shipped as liquefied compressed gases under
their own vapor pressures, they are colorless asliquids and gases under
own vapor pressures, they are colorless as liquids and freeze to
white solids. The fluorocarbons are odorless in concentrations of less
20 percent by volume in air but some have a faint and ethereal odor
in higher concentrations. The fluorocarbons are unusually stable
for organic compounds. Resistance toward thermal decomposition, in
general, is high but varies with each product. When decomposition does
toxic products are very irritating and usually give adequate warning
of their presence in very low concentrations in air. Hot work should
never be performed on charged systems.
- Large Liquid Leaks
Large liquid leaks in fluorocarbon systems may be detected visually.
As the material escapes, moisture in the air surrounding the
leak condenses and then freezes around the leak due to the
refrigerating effect of the vaporizing fluorocarbons. The frost
thus formed is readily apparent. Smaller leaks may be located
with the use of:
NOTE: The vapors of these fluorocarbons are all much heavier than
air and in the absence of good ventilation will tend to collect
in low areas, thus possibly displacing available air. The vapors
will undergo decomposition when drawn through a flame or if in
contact with very hot surfaces. The products of decomposition include
hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride and, perhaps, small quantities
of carbonyl compounds such as phosgene. The halogen acids are both
toxic and intensely irritating to the nose and throat. The irritating
action of these decomposition products is readily noticeable before
hazardous levels are reached. If such a situation develops, the
affected areas should be vacated, the heat source and leak eliminated,
and the area well ventilated before resuming work.
- A solution of liquid detergent in water applied
directly to the area being tested. The formation of bubbles
indicates a leak.
- Electronic leak detectors, capable of sensitivities
far greater than
the other methods - often in terms of fractions of an ounce of fluorocarbon
per year. When the probe of the instrument is placed near a leak, positive
identification of the leak is indicated by a flashing light, meter deflection,
or by audible means.
- Recovery of Fluorocarbons During Maintenance Work (ESO procedures,
90 HEATING SYSTEMS AND BOILER PLANT MAINTENANCE
- Boiler Operations
Written operating procedures and detailed checklists for operator guidance
shall be posted in all equipment rooms. It is important that all
functions be included, whether manual or automatic. The basic objectives
boiler operations are:
- Require the minimum number of manual operations.
routine operation procedures for normal start-up and on-line
operation. Ensure the use of interlocks to minimize
improper operating sequences and to stop sequences when conditions
are not proper for continuation. Establish and rigidly enforce
purge procedures with necessary interlocks.
- Boiler Safety
- Water Level
Water in boilers shall be checked and kept at proper levels. Water
columns shall be monitored to ensure connections are clear and
water returns to the proper level in the gauge glass when drain
valves are closed. When water is not visible in the gauge glass,
all stresses on the boiler shall be gradually reduced.
In boilers fired by fuels burned in suspension (fuel oil,
gas, or pulverized coal), stop the fire immediately, shut off
all air flow, close steam outlet valve, and shut off feed water
supply. Proceed as in a normal shutdown. Inspect the boiler
thoroughly, including a hydrostatic test, before returning
it to service.
Lighting Gas and Oil Fired Furnaces
Before lighting gas and oil fired furnaces, boilers and breeching
shall be ventilated to remove explosive vapors. Burners shall
not be lighted if there is oil on the floors or combustion
chamber, around the burners, or in front of the boilers.
If the flame of a gas or oil-fired burner goes out, the fuel
be immediately cut off and the furnace passages ventilated
before it is re-lit.
Cleaning and Maintenance Procedures
- Whenever a boiler is taken out of service for a prolonged
period, it should be cleaned promptly and inspected for defects
by an authorized boiler inspector.
- for boilers in continuous
service, planned and scheduled boiler shutdownsfor preventive
maintenance if far safer than
risking an extensive shutdown caused by boiler failure. At
least once a year, the boiler, the flame safeguard supervisory
system, and other safety controls shall be inspected during
a scheduled shutdown by an authorized boiler inspector who
is accompanied by the area supervisor. Defective parts shall
be repaired or replaced. For inspection, boilers shall be
cool, handholes and manholes open, and the boiler shall have
been ventilated. Adequate lighting and protective equipment
for work in the boiler should be provided.
- Proper and convenient
drain connections shall be provided for draining boilers. Unobstructed
floor drains, properly
located in the boiler room, facilitate proper cleaning. Infrequently
used drains should have water poured into the traps, as required
based on local conditions, to prevent the entrance of sewer
gases and odors into the boiler room. If there is a possibility
of freezing, an antifreeze mixture should be used in the
- When cleaning a boiler, employees shall wear
protective clothing, hats, goggles, heavy leather-palm gloves,
shoes, and approved respirator and hearing protectors if
- Steam Piping and Valve Maintenance
- All 4-inch and larger steam valves or main steam valves to
any building shall be operated only by qualified heat systems
- High pressure steam valves located in confined
areas shall not be turned off until the valve controlling the
turned off at the main steam plant. After the valve in the
confined area has been closed, the valve in the steam plant
may be reopened to distribute steam to other areas.
- When a
valve in any confined area is to be opened, the operator shall
close the main valve at the steam plant before opening
the steam valve in the confined area. the operator shall
ensure that all pressure has been bled off prior to opening
the steam valve in the confined area. theoperator shall open
the steam valve in the confined area and move away from the
confined area before the main valve at the steam plant may
- Routine operations, maintenance, and repair
in steam pits and other confined areas may be accomplished
circuits, controls, motors, pumps, receivers, condensate
lines, and vent fans while steam pressure is in the steam
line, providing conditions and temperatures are acceptable.
However, no operational changes, repair, or maintenance shall
be accomplished on steam lines while there is steam pressure
on the lines.
- Operating personnel shall open drain valves
and remove water from the steam line prior to opening a high
valve. Operating personnel shall familiarize themselves with
the location of these drain valves to ensure that the water
accumulations are drained from the distribution lines.
bypass lines and valves are installed around a high pressure
steam valve, the bypass valve shall be opened first.
when the steamline becomes heated or the steam pressure equalized
on both sides of main steam valve, the main steam valve may
then be opened.
- All high pressure steam valves shall be opened
very slowly and everyone shall remain at a safe distance while
positions are being changed.
- When dismantling a valve for
maintenance, the worker shall ensure pressure has been relieved
through all possible means.
The valve body shall be checked for a removable plug to relieve
pressure. bolts shall be carefully removed. Personnel shall
never position their body over the valve or in line with
the direction of travel, in case the bonnet blows.
- Vaults, Manholes, and Tanks
- All enclosed areas shall be considered hazardous until tested.
They will be tested with oxygen deficiency and combustible gas
indicators prior to entry.
- Atmospheres containing 19.5 percent
or less of oxygen by volume should not be entered without the
use of an air supplied respirator.
- Only manhole cover hooks or
other methods approved for this purpose shall be used when removing
or replacing manhole covers.
When replaced, the covers shall be properly seated. The bearing
surfaces shall be free from dirt or ice which might prevent
proper seating of the cover.
- Personnel shall enter and leave manholes or vaults only
by means of a ladder; they will not step on cables, cable hangers,
- Personnel shall not throw tools or materials
into or out of
manholes or vaults. They will use canvas buckets, handlines,
or other approved methods for lowering and removing tools and
- Working on energized equipment is especially
hazardous in subsurface structures and will be performed by
- When a manhole or vault is open, at least
one member of the
crew shall be stationed at the surface to act as a safety observer
and take appropriate actions in case of emergency.
- Cool vests
or other heat reducing equipment should be made available to
workers who enter vaults or manholes under high
heat conditions (e.g., steam leak repair).
- Central Heating Plants
- Boiler Safety
- As a minimum, each boiler shall be equipped with steam and
water gauges, gauge cocks, safety and blow-off valves, and low
water cutoff devices. Safety valve inspections shall be as outlined
in the National Board Inspection Code published by the National
Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. Boiler feedlines
shall be equipped with check and cutoff valves placed as close
as possible to each boiler. Water gauge glasses, less than 15
feet from the floor or water tender's platform, will be carefully
guarded to prevent accidents resulting from breakage or blowouts.
High-pressure gauge glasses will be drawn down on each shift.
Low-pressure gauge glasses will be checked at least weekly. Pressure
gauges shall be inspected and tested every 12 months by heating
- No boiler shall be operated unless equipped
with a safety valve, calibrated to the boiler manufacturer's
unless normal boiler operating pressures are changed. In
the latter case, the maximum operating pressure then becomes
controlling factor on safety valve selection. NO other valves,
shall be placed between eh safety valve and the boiler or
between the safety valve and the end of its discharge pipe. Safety
valves shall be manually tested on steam or hot water systems
at least monthly for proper operation. If it is not practical
to test safety valves every month for high temperature hot
water boilers, the valves should be removed from the boiler,
tested, and reset (if required) at a properly equipped safety
relief valved testing facility by the valve manufacturer
by a certified ASME shop. Valves should be tested and reset
at least once a year for high temperature hot water boilers.
applicable, spark arresters shall be installed on boiler stacks
to prevent flying sparks.
- No boiler shall be operated at pressures
higher than determined safe by the most recent boiler inspection.
Boilers shall not
be operated at greater pressures than those specified
on the manufacturer's stamped instructions. The lowest of these
pressures will govern boiler operation. the instruction
stamped by manufacturers on boilers shall not be covered or
- If safety valves do not pop when pressures
rise above valve settings, or the valves cannot be opened by
hand when tested,
the boiler shall be taken out of service until the
been repaired or replaced.
- When fires are banked, boiler
tenders shall make certain that draft is sufficient to prevent
accumulations of flammable gases.
- When a boiler is returned to
full operation, all external drains between the boiler and
main header shall be left open
until the boiler is on the line, The stop valve
shall be kept closed until boiler pressure is equal to that in
main. The stop valve shall then be gradually opened;
if no jars or disturbances occur in the line, the valve may
completely. If jarring or rumbling occurs during
cutting-in, the stop valve shall be closed immediately.
shall be introduced into cold pipes very slowly until they
have warmed enough to preclude damage.
- Boiler tenders shall stand
to one side when opening fire doors
to protect themselves against flarebacks.
- When not in
use, all boiler room tools shall be stored in suitable racks.
Tool racks shall be constructed and
located so personnel cannot accidentally touch hot
surfaces or knock
tools from racks while passing by.
- Adjustments shall not
be made to valves or valves removed to increase discharge pressure.
driving machinery, conveyors, worm gears, and reciprocating pumps
shall be properly guarded.
- Boiler Water Treatment Tanks
Some of the chemicals used to treat boiler water are hazardous and
shall be handled properly. The following safety precautions shall
Tests for chemical residuals involve small quantities of acid.
the risk is small if spillage is avoided and bottles containing
acid are not broken.
Greater risks are involved in the handling of sulfuric acid
in the hydrogen-zeolite, demineralizing, and direct-acid treatment
processes. Observe the following precautions when handling
- Do not permit diluted or strong sulfuric acid to come in
contact with the eyes, skin, or clothing.
- Always wear full
face shields, chemical safety, goggles, neoprene gloves,
and a neoprene apron.
- Never add water or caustic solutions
to concentrated acid since a violent reaction will result.
supervisor observes all cleaning and repairing of tanks.
Observe instructions about entering and cleaning
- Wash down spills with plenty of water.
Never use combustibles such as cloths, sawdust, or other
organic materials to
mop up spilled sulfuric acid. Neutralize spills with soda
ash before washing down.
- In the event of accidental contact,
remove all contaminated clothing immediately and wash affected
areas with water
for at least 15 minutes. Have medical personnel examine
affected areas to determine if further treatment is necessary.
Never add water to caustic soda (the proper method is to add caustic
soda to water) because sufficient heat may be generated to cause the
solution to boil and spatter. Personnel may be injured if they come
in contact with the spattering, since caustic soda has a marked corrosive
action on body tissue. Injury to the upper respiratory tract and lung
tissue can result if the dust or concentrated mist from caustic soda
- Never store food or eat near caustic soda or in the work area
where it is handled.
- Do not depend upon creams or ointments for
protection from caustic soda.
- Ensure that all personnel exposed
to caustic soda wear full face shield, close-fitting chemical safety
gloves, apron, and coveralls which fit snugly at neck and
- Application of Chemicals
- Always drain the feeder before introducing chemicals
into it. Before opening the drain valve, close all pressure connections
to the feeder to prevent injury to the operator from hot water
- Never place dry chemicals in a chemical feeder
or pump. This
practice plugs the chemical feed lines in a short time.
possible, mix chemicals at floor level to minimize the possibility
of injury to eyes and face.
- Check specifications, temperature,
pressure, and materials of construction of piping, valves, and
pumps, to determine whether
they can be used safely with the chemicals.
- Safety Equipment
Inspect all safety equipment regularly, including safety eyewash
and shower, to ensure that they are in working condition at all
times. Post operating instructions at the emergency eyewash fountain
and the safety shower. Periodically instruct personnel in the use
of these facilities.
- Chemical Storage/Handling
- Store all large quantities of chemicals used for boiler or
condensate water treatment in locations where accidental spills
will be contained and where drainage will not be hazardous
to personnel or the environment.
- Conspicuously post warning
and handling instructions where use of toxic chemicals are
- Train personnel who handle chemicals in safe
chemical handling practices.
- Practice neutralization and containment
techniques and disposal
instructions. Consult with the Office of Health and Safety
- Chemical Laboratories
- Ensure that chemical testing laboratories associated with
water treatment have operable mechanical ventilation, when
- Maintain chemical test kits and test instructions
in a current and usable state.
- Conspicuously post appropriate
- Train personnel who conduct chemical tests
in use of the chemicals and hazards involved.
100 PAINTING OPERATIONS
Painting and paint removal present hazards requiring effective controls.
Hazards include exposure to toxic materials and flammable or explosive
mists, particulates, and vapors. Inhalation of mists and vapors from
nearly all paints, solvents, thinners, cleaning chemicals, strippers,
and epoxies can be injurious depending upon the agent's toxic characteristics
and the amount and method of exposure. Further, many can physically
injure the skin and eyes, or be absorbed through the skin. Potential
physical and health hazards can be effectively controlled by appropriate
work procedures, controls, facility design, protective clothing, and
- Pressure Equipment
Pressure equipment used in painting operations is hazardous because
of the compressed air component; therefore, the supervisor shall
assure that spray painting equipment is in serviceable condition.
On all air-type spraying equipment a pressure regulator valve
shall be installed in the air line between the compressor and
painting equipment. A pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge
shall be installed between the pressure regulator and pressurized
paint containers and/or spray guns. Pressure relief valves shall
be set to open at pressures not more than 10 pounds above the
required working pressure.
- Other Equipment
Painter's ladders, scaffolds, and other equipment shall be
inspected prior to use to be certain they are in safe condition.
Paint mixing shall be done in designated, adequately ventilated
rooms constructed of fire-resistant materials. All sources
of ignition shall be prohibited in mixing areas. All electrical
fixtures or equipment in or within 20 feet of designated paint
preparation areas shall meet the requirements of the National
Electrical Code (NFPA #70) for Class I Division 2 locations.
Good housekeeping is essential to safe operations in paint
shops. Paint rooms, booths, etc., shall be kept clean with
equipment stored in a proper and orderly manner. All solvent
or paint soiled rags shall be placed in approved self-closing
metal containers plainly marked to indicate the contents. At
the end of each day, these containers shall be emptied or removed
to an approved location for pickup and disposal.
- Personnel Exposures
There is a wide application of organic solvents in painting. All
organic solvents have some effect on the central nervous system
and the skin. The principal modes of personnel exposure are inhalation
of vapors and skin contact and absorption. Personnel engaged
in painting operations should review Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) in order to acquaint themselves with the properties and
hazards of the solvents that are used. Skin contact with solvents
may cause dermatitis, ranging in severity from a simple irritation
to actual damage to the skin.
- Protective Equipment
Personnel engaged in painting and paint removal shall wear
protectiveclothing, respiratory devices if required, and appropriate
face, eye, and hand protection. Eye or face protection is required
during scraping or paint preparation (abrasive techniques).
Clothing shall be changed, as needed, to minimize body contamination.
The Office of Health and Safety should be consulted for specific
advice on respiratory protection required for specific painting
- Personal Hygiene
The hands and face shall be kept clean, clothes shall be changed
when contaminated and hands and soiled objects shall be kept
out of the mouth. No food or drink shall be brought into, or
consumed, in paint shops. Personnel shall wash their hands
prior to smoking or consuming food.
- Air and Water Pollution
- Pollution Prevention
Painting and paint removal operations can cause air and water pollution
problems which can impact the local community. Liquid, solid,
and gaseous waste products from painting and paint removal operations
shall be disposed of in accordance with federal and state air,
water, and solid waste pollution control laws and as specified
and approved by the Office of Health and Safety.
All spills of flammable or combustible liquids shall be cleaned
up promptly. With major spills, remove ignition sources, evacuate,
and ventilate the area, and provide appropriate protective
equipment to cleanup personnel. These liquids shall not be
allowed to enter a confined space, such as a sewer, because
of the possibility of an explosion.
- Fire Prevention and Protection
- Fire Prevention
Painting operations of particular concern are those having a fire
potential; i.e., paint removal, solvent wipe and paint application
by means of spray apparatus. Certain paints, lacquers, varnishes,
shellacs, solvents, and thinners are very flammable. Others,
under certain conditions, will burn violently. These, for the
purpose of control, are classified as being flammable. Solvent
materials selected to do the residual clean up, after the initial
removal, shall have a flash point of 140oF or above.
- Spray Painting
Spray painting presents varying degrees of fire hazards, depending
on the materials used. Any material having a flash point below
140oF should be handled very carefully, and precautions are
in order even for those having a flash point higher than this.
Fire suppression sprinklers installed in spray finishing areas
shall conform to NFPA 13, provisions for extra hazardous occupancy.
Dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or halogenated extinguisher systems
may be installed where automatic sprinkler protection is not
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed near all paint
spraying areas. The Office of Health and Safety shall determine
the type of extinguisher that is appropriate.
- Ventilation Systems
Ventilation and exhaust systems shall be in accordance with the
standard for Blower and Exhaust Systems for Vapor Removal, NFPA
91. Mechanical ventilation shall be in operation while spraying
operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter
to assure vapors are completely exhausted. Adequate conditioned
make-up air must be provided.
- Fan Unit
The fan-rotating element and its casing shall be non-sparking.
Ample clearances shall be provided to prevent friction-caused
fire hazards. Fan blades shall be mounted on a shaft rigid
enough to maintain alignment when the fan is operating under
- Exhaust Ducts
Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage,
properly supported, and will normally have a separation of
at least 18 inches from combustible materials. Ducts shall
be periodically inspected for accumulation of paint deposits
and shall be cleaned as needed.
Air exhaust from spray operations shall be directed so that
it will not contaminate make-up air being introduced into the
spraying area or other ventilation intakes. Unless the spray
booth exhaust duct terminal is from a water-wash spray booth,
the terminal discharge point shall be at least 6 feet from
any combustible exterior wall or roof.
Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be placed inside
booths or ducts. Drive belts shall not enter the duct or booth
unless the belt and pulley within the duct or booth are enclosed
- Storage and Handling
- The quantity of paints, lacquers, thinners, solvents and
other flammable and combustible liquids kept near spraying
operations shall be the minimum required for operations but
shall not exceed 1 day's supply.
- Bulk storage of these liquids
shall be in a separate building detached from other buildings
or in rooms specifically designed
and constructed to meet flammable storage room requirements.
storage of open containers of solvents is permitted. Open containers
may only be used for cleaning of painting
materials after which the solvent shall be transferred back
to a closed container for retention or disposal.
of flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored in approved
fire-resistant safety containers equipped with
flash screens and self-closing lids.
- Operations involving
water base latex paints are exempt from the above requirements.
Original closed containers, approved portable tanks,
and approved safety cans shall be used for bringing flammable or
liquids into spray finishing rooms. Open or glass containers
shall not be used.
- Liquid Transfer
The withdrawal of liquids from containers and the filling of
containers, including portable mixing tanks, shall be done
only in a mixing room or in a spraying area when the ventilating
system is in operation. Precautions shall be taken to protect
against liquid spillage.
Whenever flammable or combustible liquids are transferred from
one container to another, both containers shall be effectively
bonded and grounded. This practice prevents electrical discharge
from the accumulation of static charge because of the transfer
- Electrical Wiring
Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to the provisions
of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70). Electrical wiring
located in spray areas must be rigid metal conduit, Type MI cable,
or in metal boxes or fitting containing no taps, splices or terminal
connections. There are alternative electrical wiring in options
when the location is adjacent to (rather than inside) a spray
area (NFPA 33).
- Electrical Equipment
Electrical equipment outside of, but within 20 feet horizontally
and 10 feet vertically, of any spraying area and not separated
from it by partitions extending at least to the boundary of
the Division 2 location shall be of non-spark producing design.
This equipment shall also conform to the provisions of NFPA
70, for Class I or Class I, Division 2 locations as applicable.
If spraying operations are confined to an enclosed spray booth
or room, the space adjacent to the booth or room shall be considered
non-hazardous except for the space within three feet in all
directions from any opening in the booth or room.
All metal parts of spray booths and exhaust ducts conveying
flammable or combustible liquids or aerated combustible solids
shall be electrically grounded.
- Location of Paint Shops and Spray Finishing Operations
- Paint Shops
Paint shops may be located in specially constructed rooms if they
are separated from other operations by fire resistant walls.
Paint shops shall be provided with automatic sprinkler protection.
Avoid locating these shops near ignition sources.
- Spray Booths
When possible, paint spray booths shall be located in the paint
shop. All spray booths shall be installed to conform to NFPA
- Prohibited Locations
Spray finishing operations shall not be conducted in a building
classified as administrative or public assembly unless a room
is specifically designed for that purpose, is protected with
an automatic sprinkler system, and is separated vertically
and horizontally from such occupancies by not less than two
hour fire resistance construction.
- Airless Paint Spraying
- Never point an airless spray gun at any part of the body. Paint
can be hypodermically injected into the body by the high operating
- Do not disconnect the gun from the fluid hose or
the hose from the pump until the pressure has been released from
This is accomplished by first closing off the main line air pressure
to the pump and then bleeding off the pressure in the fluid hose
by triggering the gun before disconnecting it.
- When handling the
gun but not actually spraying (such as while changing parts or
work position), hold the gun by the grip and
remove the fingers from the trigger. This will prevent the gun
from being activated if the operator should inadvertently tighten
his hold due to sipping or stumbling. Guns should be equipped
with trigger guards and a safety lock. The lock should be in
the non-operating position except when the gun is actually in
- Check all hose connections and fittings to make sure
they are tight and not leaking. The fluid hose must be designed
the high pressure to which it is subjected. The hose, gun, and
pressure vessel should be equipped with special fittings that
are not interchangeable with low pressure fittings.
- Check the
fluid hose to be sure that there are no weak or worn spots. Make
certain the hose does not contact moving parts of
machinery, lie over or around sharp edges and corners, or come
near objects that would damage it. Check for deterioration caused
by exposure to chemicals or ordinary wear and tear. High-pressure
leaks from the hose or from the connections can also cause hypodermic
- Never pass the finger over the gun orifice to clean
it, as this will result in hypodermic injection of paint into the
Consult the manufacturer's operating manual for cleaning procedures.
object being sprayed as well as the spray gun, should be grounded
to prevent static electricity from being created. Periodic
continuity checks should be performed to ensure the hose ground
wire is intact.
- The operator shall wear eye protection and gloves
to guard against accidental contact with the spray. Respiratory
shall be worn if exhaust ventilation is not available. The Office
of Health and Safety shall be contacted to determine appropriate
protective equipment needed for the operation.
- Paint Spray Booths
Provide portable fire extinguishers adequate to handle the most
flammable of the coating materials being used. The Office of
Health and Safety shall be consulted for appropriate extinguishers
- Floor Covering
It is desirable that the floor of paint spray booths be covered
with a non-combustible mat, removable for cleaning or disposal.
Pressure hoses and couplings shall be regularly inspected for
condition and shall be replaced as needed. When positive displacement
pumps are used, a relief valve shall be installed in the discharge
line to prevent overpressure.
- Portable Paint Spray Equipment
Such equipment consists of an air compressor, paint spray gun and
hose. The paint reservoir on most portable spray guns holds one
quart of fluid or less. When a considerable amount of paint is
to be applied, a 2 1/2 or 5 gallon pressure tank is usually employed.
The air compressor shall be equipped with an ASME rated air
tank, a visible pressure gauge on the tank, a pressure reducer
with its own gauge, a guard fully enclosing the drive belt
and pulleys, and a pressure limiting switch to shut down the
compressor when the system's working pressure has been reached.
The equipment should be securely mounted on a wheeled carriage
for portability. For interior painting only electric motor-driven
equipment shall be used.
- Overpressure Protection
When separate paint pressure tanks are used, they shall be
equipped with a gauge and a relief valve to prevent overpressure.
Hoses shall be rated for the maximum working pressure of the
- A preventive maintenance program shall be implemented to
cover periodic inspection and testing of all components.
of compressors, hoses, paint pressure tanks and spray guns
shall be in areas designated and approved by the
supervisor in conjunction with the Office of Health and Safety.
- Aerosol Spray Paint Cans
The same general safety and health precautions apply to spray painting
from pressurized cans as to spray painting by other means. The following
specific items are noted:
- Pressurized cans of spray paint are to be considered flammable
materials and stored in appropriate locations.
- Office desks
are not to be used for the storage of pressurized cans of
- Office store rooms are not to be used for the storage
of pressurized cans of spray paint unless the storage area
been designated safe for the storage of flammable materials
by the Office of Health and Fire Safety.
- Disposal of malfunctioning paint spray cans still containing
paint under pressure shall be in accordance with the Office
of Health and Fire Safety hazardous waste disposal procedures.
Office waste cans shall not be used for the disposal of
cans of spray paint nor for the disposal of wiping rags and
other waste material.
Disposal of wiping rags and other waste materials shall
be in self-closing metal containers labeled to indicate the
- Protective Equipment
The same general rules governing the use of personal protective
equipment apply to painting with pressurized cans.
- Procedures For the Identification, Safe Removal, and Disposal of Lead-Based
Due to the potential exposure of personnel to lead released during abatement
of lead-based paint, proposed EPA regulatory authority over lead abatement
activities in federal buildings, and exisitng regulatory mandates governing
the disposal of hazardous wastes, the following procedures shall be adopted
in order to reduce the possibility of human exposure and contamination
of the environment.
- Identification of Lead-Based Paints
Lead-based paints have been used in the past in CDC buildings. The
presence of lead on existing painted surfaces shall be determined
by sequential use of the following methods:
- First, knowledge by painters, maintenance personnel, or contractors
of a specific paint that has been applied where the manufacturer's
Material Safety Data Sheet documents there is greater than 1% lead
in the paint.
- Second, all "red or rust-colored", and gray primer
coats are assumed to contain lead.
- Third, presence of lead as determined by "lead swabs" or
any other direct reading procedure or instrument.
- Fourth, analysis by a contracted analytical laboratory by the
AIHA Environmental Lead Laboratory Accrediation Program.
- Training of Personnel
The Federal EPA is proposing the establishment of speicfic disciplines
and training for lead-based paint activities. THe disciplines to
be established are: Inspector Technicians, Inspector/Risk Assessors,
Workers, and Supervisors. Additionally, numerous OSHA requirements
govern the activities associated with lead exposure. To that end,
prior to involvement in lead removal activities, successful completion
of the following training must be documented:
- OSHA hazard communication training specific to lead
and any hazardous materials used during the paint removal process.
- Respiratory protection training and fit testing.
- Maintenance supervisors responsible for causing the removal of
lead-based paints should attend an accredited lead abatement
course for supervisors.
- Hazardous waste training pursuant to 40 CFR
265.16 and 262.34.
- Work Practices
- Interior building surfaces
- All work areas where paint removal or scraping is to be conducted
must be sealed off from other work areas. This step includes
placing barrier tape across all access areas to the work site
and taping 6-mil plastic over all vents, doorways, windows,
and other openings into the work site.
- Personnel shall be instructed
not to grind or sand painted areas known to contain lead.
Hand scraping is permitted.
- The work area shall be cleaned periodically
during the day
by using a combination of a HEPA-filtered vacuum and
wiping down the area using damp cloths.
- Exterior building surfaces
When removing lead-containing paint
from the exterior of CDC buildings, the following occupational
health/ environmental guidelines shall be followed:
- Special precautions shall be taken when working near air
intakes, doors, and windows. Air intakes shall be protected
by construction of a wood frame and plastic sheeting barrier
and shall be of such a size to ensure that air is pulled from
uncontaminated areas. Door and windows shall remain closed
and shall be sealed with duct tape and/or plastic sheeting.
barriers shall be set up around the work area to prevent
pedestrian traffic through the work site.
- Loose and flaking
paint should be removed by manually scraping
the surfaces of the building. Sanding or grinding will
not be permitted.
- A drop cloth shall be placed directly and
completely under the work area. Paint chips shall be collected
throughout the day and at the end of the work day and
shall be placed in a container with a tight fitting lid or
in a plastic bag (6-mil).
- Abrasive blasting units
- Removal of paints containing lead or other heavy metals must
be conducted in a sealed abrasive blasitng unit equipped with
a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.
- The abrasive
blasting media should be used to its fullest extent prior
- Institute the protective measures listed below
out an abrasive blasting unit.
- General Practices
- Personnel shall remove contaminated clothing prior to leaving
the work site for breaks, lunch, and at the end of the work
- All surfaces shall be maintained as free
as practicable of accumulation of lead-based paint debris.
waste materials, inlcuding used disposable clothing,
respirator cartridges, plastic, etc. shall be placed
in a plastic bag or other container as appropriate and sealed.
tools and equipment used on the project shall be wet-wiped
prior to removal from the work site.
- After the waste containers
are sealed, the outside of the container shall be wiped off
for any residual dust that may
be present prior to being taken off-site for disposal.
- Protective Measures
- All personnel shall wear respiratory protection (half-mask, dual
cartridge with HEPA filters, as a minimum) and full-body disposable
clothing. Personnel shall have a current (<6 months) medical
clearance to wear a respirator and have been fit-tested with their
- Personnel shall also be provided and instructed
to wear face shield or vented goggles, gloves, head coverings,
- Personnel are not permitted to eat, drink, or
smoke in or near the work area.
- Personnel shall be instructed to
wash their face and hands before eating, drinking or smoking
and before leaving the work area
for breaks or lunch.
- All personnel involved in lead-based
paint removal shall shower at the end of the shift before going
home to prevent contamination
of their vehicle and exposure of family members and others
to lead-containing dust.
- The Office of Health and Fire Safety requires
that ESO personnel participate in the personal air monitoring
program in order to
determine their potential exposures to lead dust. The
results of this monitoring will also be used to determine if personnel
need to be enrolled in a medical surveillance program
lead. Contact must be made with OHFS (x7999) prior to the start
the project to coordinate the sampling effort.
are responsible for meeting OSHA personnel air monitoring, personal
protective equipment, and medical surveillance requirements
for lead exposures (29 CFR 1910.1025, or 29 CFR 1926.62,
- Waste Disposal Storage
- Hazardous wastes
The Office of Health and Fire Safety,(x7999), shall be contacted
prior to the initiation of a lead-based paint removal project.
OHFS can assist in determining whether or not a material is a
hazardous waste regulated under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as specific requirements on proper
waste reduction and disposal. OHFS will dispose of hazardous
wastes generated by in-house maintenance personnel only. Contractors
are responsible for disposing of all waste materials that they
generate in the course of their work/contract obligations. Specific
wastes generated during lead-based paint removal can include,
but is not limited to:
- Paint chips/dusts
- Solvents used to remove paints
- Media using in abrasive
- Other wastes
Materials known to have been painted with a lead-based paint such
as scrap metal (old filing cabinets, HVAC ducts, etc.) should
be turned in for recycling. Contact OHFS (x7999) if there are
any questions on disposal of other materials.
110 LANDSCAPE/GROUNDS MAINTENANCE
Maintenance of Hope College grounds involves the use of various sizes
and types of lawnmowers. The most significant dangers are being struck
by the blade or a foreign object thrown by the high speed blades and
noise-inducted hearing loss.
- Personal Protective Equipment and Safeguards
Workers shall wear face shields or safety goggles or glasses with
side shields, safety-toe boots, and hearing protection during
the operation of all lawn mowers. Gloves may be worn when using
walk-behind mowers. Bump caps should be worn when using a riding
or towed mower around tall brush and low handing tree limbs.
All mower discharge chutes shall be guarded with shields or approved
grass catchers to deflect or stop foreign objects during operation.
- Operating Practices Applicable to Push, Self-Propelled, and Riding
- Operators shall be trained and qualified to operate the different
type(s) of mowers available. Manufacturer's instructions and
operating procedures shall be followed.
- Prior to mowing, operators
shall clear the area to be mowed of all people and inspect
for foreign objects, raised sprinkler
heads, holes, soft ground, and obstructions.
- The mower shall
not be left running unattended. For riding mowers, the engine
shall be shut off and all drives disengaged
prior to getting off the mower. No riders are permitted
on riding lawn mowers. The engine on push and self-propelled
mowers shall be turned off while moving to another job
or while passing over curbs, loose gravel, or other similar
obstructions. Power to attachments shall be disengaged
on riding or towed mowers while passing over similar obstructions
and when travelling over unobstructed areas and roads on
the way to the next job site or return to the shop.
blades cutting height should normally be set as near to 2 inches
as possible. Blades shall never be set lower
than 1 1/2 inches.
- When mowing hills and slopes, operators
shall know the special precautions to follow. Slopes, hills,
or banks exceeding
a 30 degree angle shall be mowed with a push or self-propelled
walk-behind mower in a horizontal (across) direction.
hedge clippers shall be inspected, cleaned, oiled, and sharpened
as required when in use. A grounded power cord
shall be used if the tools is not double insulated. The
cord shall be inspected before use and daily for condition.
cord shall be kept away from the cutting surface and out
from under the feet of the operator. The cutting teeth
of the clipper shall not be pointed toward the body of the
The unit shall be shut off and unplugged while moving from
job to job. Gloves shall be worn when operating hedge clippers.
No electric power tool shall be operated in rain, sprinklers,
or any kind of precipitation.
- General Rules for Maintaining Lawn Care Equipment
- Always refuel with engines off and allow the engine to cool
first. Do not permit smoking in the area. Refuel mowers prior
to use versus refueling prior to storing inside a building. Complete
refueling outside, at least 10 feet away from the building or
any open flame.
- Use boards or ramps to load and unload mowers
from vehicles ensuring the engine is off and the spark plug
wire is disconnected.
Always shut off the fuel supply line when parking mowers
inside or outside at the end of the day. As storage space permits,
leave 1 to 3 feet separation space between parked gasoline-operated
- Clean mowers or perform other maintenance on
mowers only after
turning engine off and disconnecting the spark plug wire.
manufacturer's guidelines for operation and use of mowers.
- Tractor Operations
- Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are required on tractors
used for landscape maintenance. Seat belts shall be installed
on all ROPS-equipped tractors and used whenever the vehicle is
- When pulling a load, operators shall hitch
only to the draw bar. The draw bar hitch shall be kept at least
less than 17 inches, off the ground.
- When moving a front load,
the load shall be kept low to the ground and the rear wheels
as level as possible.
- Operators shall avoid holes and obstacles;
both on the ground and overhead. Speed shall be reduced with
vision is limited or when operating on rough terrain.
stuck, operators shall try carefully to back out. Increasing
engine speed or fastening a post to the rear wheels greatly
increases the chances of tipping over backward; therefore,
these methods shall not be used. Operators shall get help
- Grass shall not be mowed with a tractor on
slopes greater than a 4-inch rise or drop per foot of travel.
shall be used when going down hill and the wheels shall
be allowed to control the tractor speed.
- The engine shall be
shut off before the operator dismounts from the tractor or makes
adjustments to either the tractor
or towed equipment.
- Riders shall not be allowed on tractors,
on the draw bar, or on towed equipment, except where the equipment
designed to allow riders or passengers.
- Fenders are guards for
the worker's protection. Fenders shall be kept in place at all
- Tractors shall only be left on an incline after
the engine has been turned off, gear shift has been placed in
position (or the lowest gear if standard transmission), and
have been braked and blocked. Where possible, tractors
shall be parked on level ground.
- The power take-off guard shall
always be in place.
- Hearing protection and safety-toe shoes shall
be worn by the operator, when required. The Office of Health
and Safety should
be consulted to determine the need for respiratory
- Flower Bed and Shrub Maintenance
- Workers shall wear clothing and gloves that will protect
their hands and arms from thorns and leaves which may cut or
puncture the skin. Dust masks may be required to prevent reactions
to fine dust or pollen. Personnel shall not work on flower
or shrub beds within 24 hours after application of herbicides.
hoes, and cultivators shall be kept sharp, used in moist soil,
and placed where stepping on the cutting surface
will not cause the handle to strike a person.
- Fertilizer Storage and Handling
- Fertilizer can become a very combustible material and, at temperatures
in excess of 130 degrees F, it may explode. When fertilizers
become wet and start to decompose, they give off a gas that will
burn. Some fertilizers give off a very toxic gas when burning.
No more than 2,500 tons of fertilizer shall be stored in a building
unless that building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler
- When spreading fertilizer, pellets shall not be directed
toward other personnel. If personnel enter the area, the spreader
shall be turned off. Fertilizer spreaders shall be cleaned
and lubed daily. Safety glasses and gloves shall be worn during
fertilizing spreading operations.
The use of herbicides for weed control poses a significant potential
safety and health hazard. Herbicides shall be applied per manufacturer's
instructions and used only by certified personnel. Due to the
absorption properties of herbicides, coveralls shall be worn
during application, in addition to safety goggles and appropriate
respiratory protection, as required.
Health and Safety Manual Contents
Office of Health and Fire Safety, 178 East 11th street, Holland, MI 49423
Last Modified: 1/00
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