Economics and Business

The Department of Economics and Business seeks to prepare students with the professional skills and academic breadth necessary for leadership and service in the dynamic world of business, economics and accounting. Both theoretical and applied concepts of management, economics and accounting are stressed.

Economic theory and quantitative skills serve as the cornerstone for advanced work in economics and management. Knowledge of mathematics, strong oral and written communication skills and basic computer literacy are required, but we also expect our students to appreciate and draw from their knowledge of history, psychology, sociology, philosophy, ethics, politics, the natural sciences, other cultures and languages and the arts. The demands placed upon professional managers, accountants and economists require that they be competent in the use of the analytical tools of their trades and well-informed about the complex socio-economic environment in which they work.

Students majoring in the department are strongly encouraged to actively participate in domestic off-campus programs in Philadelphia, Chicago and Washington, D.C.; international programs around the world; internships with local business firms; and independent research projects.

A few distinctive programs within our department include:

  • London May Term. A three-week international interdisciplinary experience in which the city of London and surrounding areas provide opportunities for robust experiential learning.
  • Baker Scholars Program. Hope College is the only college in the State of Michigan, and one of 33 in the country, to have received a George F. Baker Foundation Grant. This program provides special enrichment and growth opportunities to students who show promise of being exceptional business leaders.
  • Hope College Business Club. The Business Club focuses on providing students with hands-on experiences, such as networking events, guest speakers, local business interactions and service opportunities.
  • Hanze University, Groningen, The Netherlands. A three-week summer program designed and delivered by Hanze University including guest lectures, seminars, workshops on how European markets work, legal aspects of international trade, Eurozone economic and monetary integration, business excursions to large multinational corporations, etc. All classes are conducted in English and will satisfy the management elective requirement.

The department offers two tracks for accounting majors — one for general accounting and one for public accounting. Students planning a career in public accounting should complete the 150-hour public accounting track. The department offers all the accounting courses required for taking the Michigan C.P.A. examination. With careful planning, both accounting tracks can be completed in four years and therefore, the cost of completing a graduate program would not be necessary. Any student contemplating taking the C.P.A. exam in a state other than Michigan should consult with his/her advisor no later than the first semester of his/her junior year. Students planning a career in industrial accounting, governmental or not-for-profit accounting, or banking and finance need to complete only the traditional 126-hour program. Internships are available in both private and public sectors.

Approximately 30 percent of the graduates in this department go on to graduate or professional schools in the fields of law, public administration, business administration and economics. Those who choose to begin their careers upon graduation pursue employment opportunities in a wide variety of fields, in both the public and private sectors.

ADVISING PROCEDURES:

Upon declaration of a major and approval by the chairperson, the student will be assigned an advisor from the department. Together, they will work out a tentative program for the student to complete the major.

Majors

Accounting

Students who wish to major in the area of professional accounting should contact a member of the accounting staff early in their careers, since this program requires a special sequence of courses.  See the following required courses, hours and prerequisites.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
Management:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 341 – Business Law
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
Accounting:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • ACCT 222 – Managerial Accounting
  • ACCT 321 – Intermediate Accounting I
  • ACCT 322 – Intermediate Accounting II
  • ACCT 333 – Accounting Information Systems
  • ACCT 375 – Cost Accounting

Minimum of 12 hours of 400–level electives in accounting required:*

  • ACCT 423 – Auditing
  • ACCT 425 – Individual Taxation
  • ACCT 426 – Corporate Tax and Research
  • ACCT 427 – Advanced Accounting
  • ACCT 428 – Government and Not–for–Profit Accounting
  • ACCT 430 – Ethics in Accounting

NON–DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics
  • CSCI 140 – Business Computing
    • TOTAL 63 credit hours
Elective Accounting Courses:
  • ACCT 361 – Accounting Practicum I
  • ACCT 362 – Accounting Practicum II

*MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Accounting/Management

The accounting/management double major consists of the following required courses, hours and prerequisites.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON – Economics elective - (300–level or above)
Management:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 331 – Marketing Management
  • MGMT 341 – Business Law
  • MGMT 361 – Operations Management
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
  • MGMT 401 – Management Seminar

Approved elective – Departmental OR non–departmental (DND elective) OR approved internship OR semester abroad

Accounting:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • ACCT 222 – Managerial Accounting
  • ACCT 321 – Intermediate Accounting I
  • ACCT 322 – Intermediate Accounting II
  • ACCT 333 – Accounting Information Systems
  • ACCT 375 – Cost Accounting

Minimum of 12 hours of 400–level electives in accounting required:*

  • ACCT 423 – Auditing
  • ACCT 425 – Individual Taxation
  • ACCT 426 – Corporate Tax and Research
  • ACCT 427 – Advanced Accounting
  • ACCT 428 – Government and Not–for–Profit Accounting
  • ACCT 430 – Ethics in Accounting

NON–DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics
  • CSCI 140 – Business Computing
    • TOTAL 83 credit hours
Elective Accounting Courses:
  • ACCT 361 – Accounting Practicum I
  • ACCT 362 – Accounting Practicum II

*MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Economics

The economics major offers a solid preparation for many paths; it is rigorous and analytical, as well as practical and useful.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON 306 – Econometrics
  • ECON 311 – Intermediate Macroeconomics
  • ECON 312 – Intermediate Microeconomics
  • ECON 401 – History of Economic Thought
  • ECON 480 – Senior Research Project
  • ECON – Economics elective (300-level or above)
  • ECON – Economics elective (300-level or above)

NON-DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Mathematics:
  • MATH 131 – Calculus I
  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics
      • TOTAL 44 credit hours

*MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Management

The management major is foundational, integrated, relevant, personal and challenging. See the following required courses, hours and prerequisites.

Departmental Required Courses:

Accounting:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON – Economics elective (300-level or above)
Management:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 331 – Marketing Management
  • MGMT 361 – Operations Management
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
  • MGMT 401 – Management Seminar
  • Approved elective – Departmental OR non-departmental (DND elective) OR approved internship OR semester abroad

Non-Departmental Required Course:

  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics
      • TOTAL 43-44 credit hours

Courses in workplace writing and business computing are recommended. Courses in communication and additional coursework in liberal arts are also recommended. Students are encouraged to take advantage of internship and other course experiences at The Philadelphia Center and in Chicago and study abroad programs around the world.

*MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Management/Economics

The management/economics double major consists of the following required courses, hours and prerequisites.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Accounting:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON 306 – Econometrics
  • ECON 311 – Intermediate Macroeconomics
  • ECON 312 – Intermediate Microeconomics
  • ECON 401 – History of Economic Thought
  • ECON 480 – Senior Research Project (offered spring term)
  • ECON – Economics elective (300-level or above)
Management:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 331 – Marketing Management
  • MGMT 361 – Operations Management
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
  • MGMT 401 – Management Seminar

NON-DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSE:

Mathematics:
  • MATH 131 – Calculus I
  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics
    • TOTAL 64 credit hours

*MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Public Accounting

Students who wish to pursue the public accounting pre-professional program should contact a member of the accounting staff early in their careers, since this program requires a special sequence of courses.

With careful planning, the 150-hour CPA Program can be completed in just four years. See the following required courses, hours and prerequisites.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

Economics:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
Management:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 331 – Marketing Management
  • MGMT 341 – Business Law
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
Accounting:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • ACCT 222 – Managerial Accounting
  • ACCT 321 – Intermediate Accounting I
  • ACCT 322 – Intermediate Accounting II
  • ACCT 333 – Accounting Information Systems
  • ACCT 375 – Cost Accounting
  • ACCT 423 – Auditing
  • ACCT 425 - Individual Taxation
  • ACCT 426 – Corporate Tax and Research
  • ACCT 427 – Advanced Accounting
  • ACCT 428 – Government and Not-for-Profit Accounting
    • TOTAL IN DEPARTMENT:  67 credit hours

NON-DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics

Communications Skills:

Both of the following courses are required:

  • COMM 140 – Public Presentations
  • ENGL 214 – Workplace Writing
Computer Science Skills:
  • CSCI 140 – Business Computing
    • ADDITIONAL COURSES REQUIRED : 14 credit hours
    • TOTAL REQUIRED: 81 credit hours
Elective Accounting Courses:
  • ACCT 361 – Accounting Practicum I
  • ACCT 362 – Accounting Practicum II
  • ACCT 430 – Ethics in Accounting

ACCT 423, 425, 427 and 428 are REQUIRED by the State of Michigan for those intending to take the CPA exam in Michigan.  See your advisor if you plan to take the exam in another state. (Most require 150 hours.)

* MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Public Accounting/Management

The public accounting/management double major consists of 97 credits.

DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

ECONOMICS:
  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON – ECON elective (300-level or above)
MANAGEMENT:
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives & Theory
  • MGMT 331 – Marketing Management
  • MGMT 341 – Business Law
  • MGMT 361 – Operations Management
  • MGMT 371 – Financial Management
  • MGMT 401 – Management Seminar
  • APPROVED ELECTIVE – Departmental OR non-departmental (DND elective) OR approved internship OR semester abroad
ACCOUNTING:
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • ACCT 222 – Managerial Accounting
  • ACCT 321 – Intermediate Accounting I
  • ACCT 322 – Intermediate Accounting II
  • ACCT 333 – Accounting Information Systems
  • ACCT 375 – Cost Accounting
  • ACCT 423 – Auditing
  • ACCT 425 – Individual Taxation
  • ACCT 426 – Corporate Tax and Research
  • ACCT 427 – Advanced Accounting
  • ACCT 428 – Government and Not-for-Profit Accounting
    • TOTAL IN DEPARTMENT: 83 credit hours

NON-DEPARTMENTAL REQUIRED COURSES:

  • MATH 210* – Introductory Statistics

Communications Skills:

Both of the following courses are required:

  • COMM 140 – Public Presentations
  • ENGL 214 – Workplace Writing
COMPUTER SCIENCE SKILLS:
  • CSCI 140 – Business Computing
    • ADDITIONAL COURSES REQUIRED : 14 credit hours
    • TOTAL REQUIRED: 97 credit hours
ELECTIVE ACCOUNTING COURSES:
  • ACCT 361 – Accounting Practicum I
  • ACCT 362 – Accounting Practicum II
  • ACCT 430 – Ethics in Accounting

ACCT 423, 425, 427 and 428 are REQUIRED by the State of Michigan for those intending to take the CPA exam in Michigan.  See your advisor if you plan to take the exam in another state. (Most require 150 hours.)

* MATH 311 and 312 also meet this requirement.

Minors

Accounting

The minor requirements for accounting consist of 24 credits of course work. Courses required are:

  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • ACCT 222 – Managerial Accounting

And three courses from the following seven:

  • ACCT 321 and 322 – Intermediate Accounting I and II
  • ACCT 333 – Accounting Information Systems
  • ACCT 375 – Cost Accounting
  • ACCT 425 – Individual Taxation
  • ACCT 427 – Advanced Accounting
  • ACCT 428 – Governmental and Not-for-Profit

Also required:

  • MATH 210 – Introductory Statistics , or Statistical Methods (MATH 311) AND Applied Statistical Models (MATH 312)

See specific course for appropriate prerequisite(s). Minimum GPA 2.0.

Economics

The minor requirements for economics consist of 28 credits of course work. Courses required are:

  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ECON 311 – Intermediate Macroeconomics
  • ECON 312 – Intermediate Microeconomics
  • ECON - Economics elective (300-level or above)
  • ECON - Economics elective (300-level or above)
  • MATH 131 – Calculus I

See specific course for appropriate prerequisite(s). Minimum GPA 2.0.

Management

The minor requirements for management consist of 28 credits of course work. Courses required are:

  • ECON 211 – Principles of Macroeconomics
  • ECON 212 – Principles of Microeconomics
  • ACCT 221 – Financial Accounting
  • MGMT 222 – Management Perspectives and Theory
  • A 300–level management course
  • An approved departmental or non-departmental elective.

Also required:

  • MATH 210 – Introductory Statistics, or Statistical Methods (MATH 311) AND Applied Statistical Models (MATH 312)

See specific course for appropriate prerequisite(s). Minimum GPA 2.0.

Economic Courses

200. Economic Themes and Topics — Exploring "economic ways of thinking" as they apply to a theme or to issues of public concern. The course is designed to fulfill the objectives of the Social Science II General Education requirement and may not be applied toward a management, economics or accounting major.
2 Credits | Fall, Spring | Social Sci II - Block B-201607, Social Science 2 (S2B, SS2)

211. Principles of Macroeconomics — An introduction to economic principles and concepts, designed to fulfill the objectives of the college social science requirement and to prepare students for additional work in economics, management, and accounting. The course deals with such topics as supply and demand, markets, money, the determination of national income, employment and the price level, and international trade. The government's role in the economy is examined throughout.
4 Credits | Fall, Spring | Social Science 1 (SS1)

212. Principles of Microeconomics — An introduction to economic analysis at the microeconomic level which focuses on individual and firm decision-making in a market environment. This course deals with such topics as consumer demand, costs of production and supply, resource allocation, the role of competition in markets, labor and resource markets and the economics of the environment.
Prerequisites: Econ 211 with a grade of C- or better
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

295. Studies in Economics — A lecture or seminar class on a special topic of economics for majors and non-majors in the discipline. For example, Ethics and Economics of Labor Unions has been offered under this topic number.
2 or 4 Credits | As needed

302. Monetary Economics — A study of the role of money, credit, and financial institutions, and the impact of these areas on the general level of output, income and employment.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

304. Economic Growth and Development — A study of the factors that influence the growth and development of modern economies with particular emphasis on developing countries. Attention will be given to theoretical models and to the interplay of social, political and cultural phenomena.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | As Needed

306. Econometrics — An introduction to the mathematical and statistical tools used in constructing and estimating economic models. Focuses on applications of multivariate regression analysis in the areas of economic forecasting and hypotheses testing. Extensive use of the computer.
Prerequisites: Econ 212, Math 210 or equivalent
4 Credits | Fall

310. Environmental Public Policy — This course is an introductory analysis of the economic, scientific and political factors involved in environmental public policy. American environmental management will be viewed in terms of the interplay among economic efficiency, scientific feasibility and the demands of the political process. Topics covered will include federal lands, intergovernmental relations, agency law, comparative institutions, U.S. environmental regulations and technological compliance. This course is team taught by faculty from the Departments of Economics, Geological and Environmental Sciences, and Political Science so that students are exposed to the interdisciplinary nature of environmental public policy issues. Four hours of lecture per week. Fulfillment of the NSL lab requirement is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Econ 211 with a grade of C- or better or Pol 100
4 Credits | Spring

311. Intermediate Macroeconomics — This course examines the important concepts and theories concerning levels of income, employment, interest rates and prices. It enables the student to understand the causes of changes in these levels, and to understand the effectiveness of government policies in affecting them.
Prerequisites: Econ 212, Math 131
4 Credits | Spring

312. Intermediate Microeconomics — Intermediate-level treatment of microeconomics concerned primarily with resource allocation decisions under various product and resource market conditions. Implications for business and public policy are emphasized.
Prerequisites: Econ 212, Math 131
4 Credits | Fall

318. International Economics — This course presents a survey of the fields of international trade and finance with attention given to fundamental theory and present policy and practice.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | Fall

320. Financial Economics — This new course explores the economics of the finance industry. As part of preparing for leadership and service in a global society, learn about various walks of life on ‘Wall Street’ and elsewhere in the banking world. Look at how money instruments work, and the role of different companies. Participate in off-campus activities with our industry partner. Reflect on money markets from a faith perspective too. Topics include market behavior, trader psychology, banking firms, and special exotic products. The approach is generally non-technical.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | As Needed

390. Internships in Vocation — The objective of this course is to help students 1) integrate theory and practice, 2) enhance their self-awareness and social-awareness competencies, and 3) seek their mission in the world. The course is a customized and highly reflective experience involving the professor, the student, and the placement supervisor. Enrollment in the class is dependent upon students finding their own internship placements by working with Hope’s Career Development Center. Students will not receive credit for this course and Mgmt 391.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | Summer

395. Advanced Studies in Economics — A lecture or seminar in a special topic in advanced economics. For example, Law and Economics will be offered under this number.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1, 2, 4 Credits | As needed

401. History of Economic Thought — An introduction to, and critical survey of, the important people and ideas in economic theory. Attention is given to the interaction of economic ideas with the times in which they arose, and the evolution of significant economic doctrines.
Prerequisites: Econ 311 or Econ 312
4 Credits | Spring

402. Industrial Organization/Economics of Strategy — A theoretical and empirical study of how the organization of markets affects the conduct and performance of firms in those markets. Topics include the determinants of market structure; the impact of market power on pricing, product differentiation, technological change; and managerial strategy. Several specific U.S. industries will be studied, and a strategic analysis of an industry will be performed.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | Spring

403. Labor Economics — Study of the institutional and economic forces which determine wages and employment in labor markets. Economic theory is used to analyze the impact of various policies on the distribution of income. Topics include the economic effects of unions, minimum wage legislation, investment in human capital, discrimination in labor markets, poverty and transfer programs, and the disincentive effects of taxation. This course also examines issues of work and vocation.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

410. Public Finance — Study of the role of government in a market economy. The theory and practice of taxation, expenditure, analysis and government regulation are examined in terms of their impact on economic efficiency and income redistribution. Topics include benefit-cost analysis, environmental pollution, tax reform, healthcare economics, income transfer programs and intergovernmental grants.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
4 Credits | Fall

480. Senior Research Project — A capstone course required of all economics majors to develop advanced skills in economic research and writing. A research paper will be prepared in conjunction with an upper-level economics course being taken at the same time. Students may take Econ 306 either prior to enrollment in or concurrently with the class.
Prerequisites: Econ 311 or Econ 312, Senior standing, Econ 306
Corequisites: Econ 306
4 Credits | Spring

490. Independent Studies in Economics — Independent studies in advanced economics under the supervision of a designated staff member. Advanced standing in the department is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

495. Advanced Studies in Economics — A lecture or seminar in a special topic in advanced economics. Advanced standing in the department is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
2-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

Management Courses

222. Management Perspectives and Theory — Study of modern managerial principles and processes as usually associated with business (but which principles also apply to the management of non-profit organizations such as churches, schools, etc.) through an examination of the functions of planning, organizing, leadership and controlling. Current problems facing businesses are reviewed. Changing patterns of management are discussed.
Prerequisites: Econ 211 with a grade of C- or better
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

295. Studies in Management — A lecture or seminar class in a special topic of management for majors and non-majors in management.
2-4 Credits | As needed

331. Marketing Management — This course develops decision-making skills in the context of managing the marketing function in all types of organizations. This project-based course includes team assignment to a company marketing opportunity. Simulations and case studies describing actual marketing problems provide an opportunity for the student to develop an appreciation for the types of problems which exist in the real world of marketing; and to develop the skills of analysis and decision-making necessary for success in marketing and other areas of organizations. Topics include marketing opportunity analysis, market segmentation, product policy, promotion, channels of distribution, pricing policy, and the analysis of complete marketing programs.
Prerequisites: Mgmt 222 with a grade of C- or better, Acct 221, Econ 212, Math 210 or equivalent
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

341. Business Law — A survey of business law, stressing contracts and including an introduction to sales, agency, negotiable instruments, and partnerships and corporations.
Prerequisites: Econ 212
3 Credits | Fall, Spring

352. Human Resource Management — The analytical and applied approach to human resources management for potential human resource professionals, line management, or employees. Traditional personnel and labor relations topics are presented such as the legal environment for management of employees, job analysis, recruiting and selection of employees, performance evaluation, discipline, and labor negotiation.
Prerequisites: Mgmt 222 with a grade of C- or better, Acct 221, Econ 212, Math 210 or equivalent
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

356. Managing for Environmental Sustainability — The study of practices usually associated with business, but applicable to other organizations, that create environmentally sustainable outcomes.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
4 Credits | As Needed

361. Operations Management — This course examines the management of the conversion process -- converting raw materials, land, labor, capital, and management inputs into desired outputs of goods and services. This will include the study of traditional approaches as well as new contributions from just-in-time practices, constraint theory, total quality management, and statistical process control. The analysis of operational decisions will include strategic, productivity, and ethical considerations.
Prerequisites: Mgmt 222 with a grade of C- or better, Acct 221, Econ 212, Math 210 or equivalent
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

371. Financial Management — This course examines financial decision making within the context of public corporations. The concepts of risk, rates of return, time value of money, valuation, and stewardship are utilized to analyze financial decisions involving capital budgeting and capital structure. The analysis of these decisions will include both financial and ethical considerations. CSCI 140 is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Mgmt 222 with a grade of C- or better, Acct 221, Econ 212, Math 210 or equivalent
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

390. Internships in Vocation — The objective of this course is to help students 1) integrate theory and practice, 2) enhance their self-awareness and social-awareness competencies, and 3) seek their mission in the world. The course is a customized and highly reflective experience involving the professor, the student, and the placement supervisor. Enrollment in the class is dependent upon students finding their own internship placements by working with Hope’s Career Development Center. Permission of instructor required.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
4 Credits | Fall, Spring, Summer

395. Advanced Studies in Management — A lecture or seminar in a special topic in advanced management. Permission of instructor required.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
2 or 4 Credits | Fall, Spring

401. Management Seminar — This seminar in management is intended to challenge participants to evaluate several aspects of management more thoroughly than possible in a traditional classroom setting. Students will work closely with the professor and others to read, evaluate, and discuss topics of critical importance to successful leadership in organizations. Professors may emphasize a management topic of particular interest to them and their professional study. Common components may include: study of classic management readings and materials; Christianity and leadership; vocation and calling as applied to management; personal finance; business ethics; global business; and a written analysis of case studies and other topics. A significant research paper may be required.
Prerequisites: Senior standing or completion of major requirements
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

490. Independent Studies in Management — Independent studies in advanced management under the supervision of a designated staff member. Advanced standing in the department is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

495. Advanced Studies in Management — A lecture or seminar in a special topic in advanced management. For example, Total Quality Management and Finance Seminar have recently been offered under this number. Permission of instructor is required.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
2-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

Accounting Courses

221. Financial Accounting — An introduction to the financial accounting model for business enterprises intended for potential accounting majors, business majors, and others who wish to read, understand, and analyze financial statements. Course includes lecture and discussion. Completion during freshman or sophomore year highly recommended.
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

222. Managerial Accounting — This course is designed to examine the principles, techniques, and uses of financial information which is used by managers to make decisions that positively impact organizational outcomes.
Topics include product pricing, break-even analysis and capital budgeting. Course includes lecture and discussion.
4 Credits | Spring

295. Studies in Accounting — A lecture or seminar class in a special topic of accounting for majors and non-majors in accounting.
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

321. Intermediate Accounting I — A continuation of the study of financial accounting theory and practice at the intermediate level. This course examines the development of accounting standards, the presentation of income and retained earnings, the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows, asset and liability recognition and measurement problems, and accounting for owners' equity.
Prerequisites: Acct 221 with a grade of C or better
4 Credits | Fall | Global Learning International (GLI)

322. Intermediate Accounting II — A continuation of the study of financial accounting theory and practice at the intermediate level. This course examines the development of accounting standards, the presentation of income and retained earnings, the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows, asset and liability recognition and measurement problems, and accounting for owners' equity.
Prerequisites: Acct 321 with a grade of C or better
4 Credits | Spring

333. Accounting Information Systems — A study of the basics of contemporary information systems in both manual and computerized environments. It includes the role of information in the management of business organizations.
Prerequisites: Acct 221
4 Credits | Spring

361. Accounting Practicum I — This course is designed to provide hands-on experience with accounting practitioners. It will provide an opportunity for students to relate the theories and concepts learned in their business and accounting classes to actual practice in an organizational setting. Students are supervised by organizational managers. Students will work in public or private accounting positions in the field. Other requirements include maintaining an analytical journal, writing a final summary paper and participating in discussions. A minimum of 8 credits in accounting courses is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Acct 221, Acct 222, Acct 333, Permission of instructor
4 Credits | Spring, Summer

362. Accounting Practicum II — This course is a continuation of Acct 361. It is designed to provide hands-on experience with accounting practitioners. It will provide an opportunity for students to relate the theories and concepts learned in their business and accounting classes to actual practice in an organizational setting. Students are supervised by organizational managers. Students will work in public or private accounting positions in the field. Other requirements include maintaining an analytical journal, writing a final summary paper and participating in discussions.
Prerequisites: Acct 361, Permission of instructor
4 Credits | Spring, Summer

375. Cost Accounting — Continuation of the study of cost accounting theory and practice with particular attention given to cost information systems, cost control, planning of profits and costs, and cost and profit analysis.
Prerequisites: Acct 221, Acct 222 with a grade of C or better
4 Credits | Fall

395. Advanced Studies in Accounting — A lecture or seminar class in a special topic in advanced accounting.
Prerequisites: Permission of department chairperson
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

423. Auditing — An introduction to basic audit planning and risk assessment, auditing techniques, audit evidence, statistical sampling in auditing, auditing through and around the computer, audit reports and opinions, ethics in auditing, and the legal and regulatory environment.
Prerequisites: Acct 322, Acct 333
4 Credits | Spring

425. Individual Taxation — An introduction to federal tax accounting as it relates to income tax for individuals.
Prerequisites: Acct 322
4 Credits | Fall

426. Corporate Tax and Research — This course continues the study of taxation from Accounting 425. It emphasizes tax concepts applied to corporations, S corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, estates, and trusts. It includes skills recommended by the AICPA Model Tax Curriculum such as ethical considerations, team building, and research.
Prerequisites: Acct 425 with a grade of C or better
4 Credits | Spring

427. Advanced Accounting — Advanced studies in the theory and practice of accounting for business organization with particular emphasis on corporate combinations, partnerships, and international accounting topics.
Prerequisites: Acct 322
4 Credits | Fall

428. Governmental and Not-for-Profit Accounting — A study of the accounting theory and practice and the applicable professional standards for government and not-for-profit institutions.
Prerequisites: 322, Declared Public Accounting (150 cr.) major
4 Credits | Fall

430. Ethics in Accounting — A seminar class. It will familiarize the student with the spectrum of codes of ethics in accounting and provide models for analyzing ethical issues. It includes discussions directed toward identifying and examining a student's own personal and business code of ethics.
Prerequisites: Acct 221, Acct 222
2 Credits | When Feasible

490. Independent Studies in Accounting — Independent studies in advanced accounting under the supervision of a designated staff member. Advanced standing in the department is highly recommended prior to this course.
Prerequisites: Permission of department chairperson
1-3 Credits | Fall, Spring

495. Advanced Studies in Accounting — A lecture or seminar class in a special topic in advanced accounting.
Prerequisites: Permission of department chairperson
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

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