History

The word history comes from a Greek word meaning “inquiry.” The discipline of history is far more than the compilation of facts. It involves asking questions of various kinds of evidence and using answers to solve problems. Getting valid answers requires students to develop skills of critical thinking and careful evaluation of evidence from a variety of sources—literary, artistic, archeological, oral. History may be the most interdisciplinary of academic disciplines.

Hope’s History Department offers courses that cover the globe and span time from the ancient world to the present day, from pre-colonial Africa and the Greek world to modern China, recent America and World War II. From various perspectives the discipline of history seeks to understand how men and women have lived in different times and places, what they have thought and experienced and how to use their records that have come down to us.

Students (and their parents) often ask what they can do with a history major. The answer is simple: almost anything. History’s emphasis on critical thinking and writing gives students skills which are transferable to a wide range of fields. Hope history majors have found careers as teachers, lawyers, journalists, physicians, librarians, editors, researchers, museum curators, ministers and in government and foreign service. On a broader scale a list of history majors includes people such as W. E. B. DuBois, Wolf Blitzer, Elena Kagan, Joe Biden, Martha Stewart, Chris Berman, Antonin Scalia, Katherine Hepburn and five U. S. presidents.

At Hope history can be studied in the classroom, as well as in domestic and foreign off-campus programs. Internships can be arranged; some students have done local history projects that afforded income-earning opportunities.

Majors

To accommodate the broad range of interests and career goals of its majors and other interested students, the History Department offers two majors and minors and a formal French/History double major, as well as an honors program.

History

A minimum of 36 credits in history is required for a major. The distribution requirement for the 36 credits in history is as follows:

  • HIST 140
  • One history course focused mainly on the period before 1500
  • One course in American history
  • One course in European history after 1500
  • One course in Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, or Latin America
  • One course in global history
  • A seminar in history
  • Two 200-level courses
  • Two 300-level courses
  • Students may count no more than three of the following courses toward the major:
    • HIST 130, HIST 131, HIST 160, HIST 161
    • Either IDS 171 or IDS 172
  • No more than two two-credit HIST 200 courses (Historical Snapshots) may be counted toward the major.

Students who plan to do graduate work in history are urged to attain reading proficiency in two foreign languages.

Majors planning to study mainly the history of areas other than the United States are strongly urged to spend a summer, semester, or year of study in the geographic area of their concentration. A major in classical studies combining work in history, classical languages, art and philosophy courses is available. Please see requirements under the Department of Modern and Classical Languages.

History Major for Secondary Teaching

In partnership with the Hope College Department of Education, the Department of History offers a teaching major for certification through the State of Michigan. The history major for certification to teach in secondary schools (grades six-12) consists of a minimum of 38 credits. All students desiring secondary certification must take the following courses:

  • HIST 140, 160, 161, 175 and 495, 16 credits
  • Students must also take either HIST 130 and 208 or HIST 131 and 207
  • As well as one American history course flagged for civic engagement – HIST 256, 351, 352, 355 or 357

In addition, they must take at least one course from each of the following areas:

  • European history after 1500
  • Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Middle Eastern history
  • U.S. history course, either HIST 200, 251, 252, 255 or 261
  • They must also take EDUC 305, 321 and 322

Students intending to complete this major should consult with the Department of Education as they plan their schedules.

History/French

In addition to on-campus courses in French and History, students interested in a double major in French/History should plan for a semester in Paris, Nantes, or Rennes for a concentration on France, or Dakar (Senegal) for a concentration on Francophone studies. These programs, administered by the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES) in Paris and Nantes and the Council for International Educational Exchange (CIEE) in Rennes and Dakar (Senegal), will prepare a student for a variety of fields including international law, politics, journalism, the foreign service, business, market research analysis, and teaching at the high school and college levels. The program offers the following special features:

  • French Immersion Courses at the IES and the CIEE centers in Paris, Nantes, Rennes, and Dakar
  • French courses at the local universities
  • Housing in local homes as well as independent housing
  • Field trips connected with the IES and CIEE programs
  • Internships

The Fine Arts I component in Hope’s general education requirements may be fulfilled by taking an art history, OR theatre history OR music history class abroad.

Students planning to fulfill their Cultural Heritage II requirement abroad must take both History and Literature abroad. To fulfill Cultural Heritage I they must take on campus either IDS 171 or Phil 230 (Ancient Philosophy). Because classes abroad are usually 3 credit courses, students planning to fulfill their C.H. II requirement abroad must take BOTH History and Literature aboard.

Students interested in this dual major should contact a French and a History professor early to be advised on the proper sequencing of courses.

Minors

History

The department offers a 20-credit minor. The minimum distribution requirement is as follows:

  • HIST 140
  • Courses in three of the five major distribution areas:
    1. pre-1500 period before 1500
    2. American history course
    3. European history course after 1500
    4. Africa, Asia, Latin America, or Middle East course
    5. global history course
  • No more than one 2-credit History 200 course (Historical Snapshots) may be counted toward the minor
  • Students may count no more than three of the following courses toward the minor:
    • HIST 130, HIST 131, HIST 160, HIST 161
    • Either IDS 171 or IDS 172

History Minor For Secondary Teaching

In partnership with the Department of Education, the Department of History offers a teaching minor for certification through the State of Michigan. The history minor for certification to teach in secondary schools (grades six-12) consists of a minimum of 26 credits. All students desiring a minor for secondary teaching certification must take the following courses:

  • HIST 140
  • HIST 160
  • HIST 161
  • HIST 175
  • EDUC 305
  • They must also take either HIST 130 and 208 or HIST 131 and 207
  • As well as one American History course flagged for civic engagement (HIST 256, 351, 352, 355 or 257)
  • EDUC 321 and 322

Students intending to complete this minor should consult with the Department of Education as they plan their schedules.

Honors Program 

The Honors Program in History challenges students to enrich the minimum requirements of the major through a focus on vocational discernment. The program recognizes the breadth of options available within the major and supports students in tailoring their co-curricular, academic, and research experiences to meet their vocational and long-term interests. In addition, students who graduate with Honors in History will have demonstrated exceptional academic rigor by maintaining a high GPA in History courses and working with a faculty mentor to complete a Senior Honors Project, the topic and format of which will complement the student’s vocational focus. Detailed information is available on the department’s webpage.

General Courses

130. Introduction to Ancient Civilization — The course will focus on significant developments in history from its Greek origins through the Renaissance. It is designed to introduce the student to the discipline of history and can be used to fulfill the Cultural Heritage I requirement. The course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Spring | Cultural Heritage I, Global Learning International (CH1, GLI)

131. Introduction to Modern European History — The course will focus on significant developments in modern European history from the Renaissance to our own time. It is designed to introduce the student to the discipline of history and can be used to fulfill the Cultural Heritage I requirement. The course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Spring | Cultural Heritage II, Global Learning International (CH2, GLI)

140. History Workshop — An introduction to historical questions, research and writing through the study of a special topic in depth. Required for History majors, minors and open to other interested students.
2 Credits | Fall, Spring

159. History of Science — This course surveys the history of science from the Renaissance to the present day. In addition to mastering the historical content, students will re-create historic experiments in order to understand scientific theories and methodologies as well as the nature of science itself. The primary objectives of the course are to understand how scientific knowledge expanded and changed over time, individuals developed and practiced the role of “scientist,” science influenced social environments, and social and political changes affected science, as well as why science developed as a particular kind of cross-disciplinary exploration of the universe with certain types of questions and methodologies. Flagged for global learning domestic. Cross-listed with Gems 159.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning Domestic, Natural Science I with lab (GLD, NSL)

200. Historical Snapshots — This course is designed to allow the exploration of some narrow moment in time (early imperial Rome) or some particular historical issue or problem (such as World War II, Christianity in China, or women in early Modern Europe). The content and emphasis of each section is determined by the instructor. Students may repeat the course for credit as topics change. No more than two 2-credit HIST 200 courses may be counted toward the major, and no more than one toward the minor.
2 Credits | Fall, Spring

207. Introduction to World History to 1500 — This introductory world history course surveys developments in global history from prehistory until about 1500. The course focuses on regional, interregional and global interactions from the beginning of written history to the European crossing of the Atlantic. It fulfills the Cultural Heritage I requirement and is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall | Cultural Heritage I, Global Learning International (CH1, GLI)

208. Introduction to World History since 1500 — This introductory world history course surveys developments in global history since 1500. The course focuses on interregional and global interactions from the European crossing of the Atlantic through the Cold War. It fulfills the Cultural Heritage II requirement and is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring | Cultural Heritage II, Global Learning International (CH2, GLI)

Africa, Mid East, Asia & Latam

221. Colonial and Post-Colonial Africa: African Perspectives on Colonialism — This course explores the colonial experiences of Africans as well as the legacies of European colonial rule in Africa. It highlights the different ways Africans responded to European military conquest and political domination from the mid-1850s to the 1960s. The course also studies how Africans struggled for independence, using specific case studies to show the different paths toward independence. Novels by African authors will be used to examine the social and cultural experiences of colonialism. The course gives voice to the colonized in a variety of contexts across Africa by emphasizing how Africans shaped colonial encounters with Europeans. The course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Cultural Diversity 4.0-201607, Global Learning International (CD4, GLI)

225. West African Economy and Society, 18th-20th Centuries: Commerce, Colonialism and Christianity — The course explores the major economic and social transformations in West Africa from the 18th to the 20th century. In so doing, it will locate West Africa within the wider Atlantic World and examine the interplay of internal and external forces that shaped the region’s history from the immediate pre-colonial period to the post -colonial era. The course will cover, among other topics, the slave trade and slavery, West African “slave states,” the founding of Sierra Leone and Liberia, the Abolitionist movement, Islamic revolutions and states, the spread of Christianity, West African Colonial intermediaries, the colonial economy, and women and economic development in post-colonial Africa. The course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | As Needed | Cultural Diversity 4.0-201607, Global Learning International (CD4, GLI)

230. Model Arab League — Students will be assigned to represent one of the member states of the Arab League. They will study current issues in Middle Eastern politics, economics and society, and concentrate on analyzing the interests and positions of their assigned country. They will then participate in the Michigan Model League of Arab States, a two-day conference at which they will engage in an intercollegiate role-playing exercise, working as a team to represent their assigned country. In the process, they will improve their skills of research, writing, persuasion, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. The course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
2 Credits | Spring | Global Learning International (GLI)

260. History of Latin America Since 1810 — This course surveys Latin American history from independence to the present. It examines the social, cultural, economic, and political processes that shaped Latin America. The course pays particular attention to the roots of independence in the colonial order, the legacy of colonialism, the struggle for national identities, U.S.-Latin American relations, and the effects of industrialization, urbanization, and population growth in the 20th century. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

263. Colonial Latin American History — This survey course introduces students to the history of the exploration and colonization of the Spanish and Portuguese dominions in South and Central America from the initial phase of conquest through the consolidation of a colonial regime. The lectures, readings, and discussions offer a broad overview of the European conquests of the region that began in the late 15th century through the 18th-century roots of later independence movements. In addition to a thorough examination of colonial society, the course focuses on the themes of medicine and disease, conquest, religious conversion, and the place of Latin America within the Spanish world empire. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Cultural Diversity 4.0-201607, Global Learning International (CD4, GLI)

270. Modern China — This course offers a narrative history of China from its last imperial dynasty to its modern communist regime. The first three weeks of the course are devoted to the Qing dynasty, or the society, institutions and ways of thought of “traditional” China. The remaining 12 weeks are devoted to 20th century China, which spans the republican and communist eras. Building upon the knowledge acquired in the first third of the course, we will seek to comprehend the making of “modern” China, a process that was often violent and tumultuous. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

312. Myth and Culture in Pre-Colonial Africa — This course is designed to introduce students to the pre-colonial African past, principally through the study of primary and orally transmitted sources. The use of these sources and their interpretation will be given special emphasis as will the use of biography. Case studies of political change in the 19th century provide a focus for looking at issues such as state formation, the role of technology, the spread of Islam, slavery and European intrusion. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | As Needed | Global Learning International (GLI)

321. The Making of Modern Africa — The course will focus on decolonization in Africa since 1940. Colonialism in Africa and the post-colonial period are covered, but the focus of the course is on resistance to colonialism and the process of decolonization, including case studies of South Africa, Nigeria and Algeria. Special emphasis will be placed on the active role of Africans, both men and women, in shaping the political and cultural developments of their continent despite the obvious impact of European colonialism. The course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

365. Gender and Power in Latin American History — This course explores the relationship between gender and the power necessary to maintain structures of difference in Latin American history. The course examines how people and institutions constructed, assumed, and contested representations of both femininity and masculinity in a variety of sites. Using case studies, the course details how people and institutions invoked and inscribed popular understandings of gender alongside constructions of race and class. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Year | Global Learning International (GLI)

370. Modern Middle East — A course focusing on historical explanations for the tensions that periodically erupt into war and violence in the Middle East. Concentrations on Islam and the Arabs, Zionism and the Israelis, and the deep American involvement in the disputes. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Cultural Diversity 4.0-201607, Global Learning International (CD4, GLI)

United States Courses

160. U.S. History to 1877 — This survey course examines the rise of the American nation from its colonial origins through the Civil War and Reconstruction. The approach is thematic and special emphasis is placed upon the impact of European contact with Native Americans, the establishment and abolition of slavery, the struggle for women’s equality, the influence of industrialization, westward movement, the evolution of republican institutions, the Civil War and Reconstruction, and the nation’s gradual rise to prominence. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Fall | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

161. U.S. History Since 1877 — This course surveys U.S. history from Reconstruction to the present. It examines the major social, cultural, political, and economic events that shaped the U.S. after the Civil War, focusing especially on industrialization, Progressivism, WW I, the Great Depression, the New Deal, WW II, the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement, the Sixties and Reagan Republicanism. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Spring | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

175. Michigan History — This course is a survey of Michigan History to the present and is primarily designed for students majoring in education. The main objective of History 175 is for students to demonstrate an understanding of the chronology, narratives, perspectives, and interpretations of Michigan history from its beginnings to the present. To this end, students will: examine relationships, including cause and effect, among important events from the era; identify the sequence of these events and describe the setting and the people affected; analyze and compare interpretations of events from a variety of perspectives; and assess the implications and long-term consequences of key decisions made at critical turning points in Michigan history.
2 Credits | Fall, Spring

251. Revolutionary America: Visionaries, Rebels, and Ruffians — This course examines the forces, people, philosophies, and events that characterized colonial American society and led to the Revolution of 1776. From those beginnings, the ideals and practical necessities of winning the social, political, and military struggle for independence imposed realities that later affected the nation as it sought to consolidate its victory. The 1787 Constitutional Convention was the culmination of one struggle to establish a nation based upon democratic republican principles, and the beginning of another struggle to ensure that those ideals were applied and enjoyed by all Americans.This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

252. Civil War America: Disruption and Destiny — This course spans the years from 1820 to 1877, starting with the Missouri Compromise and progressing through the Civil War and Reconstruction. During this period, as the United States expanded its territorial boundaries, forged a political identity, and further achieved a sense of national unity, sectional rivalries, industrialization, reform movements, and increasingly hostile confrontations over the language and interpretation of the Constitution led to crisis. This course will examine how those factors contributed toward the 1861-1865 Civil War, with subsequent special emphasis being placed upon how the conflict and post-war Reconstruction influenced America’s social, political, cultural, and economic development as it prepared to enter the 20th century. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

255. World War I America — This course will examine the changes that Americans faced in the first part of the twentieth century, particularly how the First World War shaped United States society. We will examine the relationship between the war and social, economic and political trends in the United States, including industrialization and unionization, the Progressive movement, the freedom struggle of African Americans, women’s suffrage, immigration, the Red Scare, and the rise of conservatism in the 1920s. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

256. Recent America: From World War II to 9/11 — This course focuses on the United States as a world power. We examine the ways American men and women of different classes, races, regions and religions dealt with the social, cultural, economic and political changes that happened during the last half of the twentieth century. Major topics include the Cold War and the economic boom of the 1950s, Vietnam and the rise of protest in the 1960s, the economic and foreign policy challenges of the 1970s, the rise of conservatism in the 1980s, the economic and foreign policy challenges of the 1970s, the rise of political conservatism in the 1980s, and the challenges of diversity and globalization in the 1990s. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

351. Slavery & Race in America, 1619-Present: The Struggle Within — This course examines the roles that slavery and race have played in shaping the course of American history. Starting from an overall assessment of slavery’s origins in western culture, the course considers the practice of slavery and its social, political, and economic influences in North America. Special emphasis is placed upon analyzing how institutional slavery and the concept of race shaped the lives of masters, slaves, and their respective descendants down to the present day. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

352. Women and Gender in United States History — This class explores two inter-related issues in United States history. The first issue involves the ways women of different classes, races, regions, ethnicities, and religions have made social change happen in the United States. Second, the class will examine how American men and women understood and recreated meanings of manhood and womanhood. This class will cover the period from the Revolutionary Era through the twentieth century and students will examine how historians of women and gender have posed questions and interpreted these issues. Students will also do their own interpretation of primary sources in class discussion and an extensive research paper. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Cultural Diversity 4.0-201607, Global Learning Domestic (CD4, GLD)

355. United States Foreign Policy, 1898-Present: Power, Promise, and Peril — This course traces the development of United States foreign policy from the Spanish-American War to the present. In this period the United States emerged as a great world power, assumed center stage during World War II, offset the threat of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and currently claims title to being the world’s lone superpower. Post Cold War conditions have challenged the nation to formulate policies responsive to recent manifestations of threats not yet clearly defined, including the problems of non-state actors and terrorism. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

357. U.S. Cultural History — Spanning the years from the Civil War through the late 20th century, this course examines the ways both ordinary people and elites created, challenged and shaped American culture. Students will consider cultural history on two levels. First, we will explore changes in the ways American men and women of different classes, races, and regions expressed themselves through popular and high culture - including entertainment forms like vaudeville, world’s fairs, novels, and movies as well as movements like the Harlem Renaissance and Fundamentalism. Second, we will analyze the influence of cultural ideas on political, economic and social changes, such as fights for African-American and women’s rights, the emergence of consumer culture, debates over immigration restriction, economic struggles during the Great Depression, participation in World War II, protests of the 1960s, and the rise of conservatism in the 1980s. This course is flagged for global learning domestic.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning Domestic (GLD)

361. United States Military History: Rise of a Warrior Democracy — “Peace through strength,” “Uncommon valor was a common virtue,” and “In war, there is no substitute for victory.” These phrases spoken at various times by different military commanders illustrate the importance America’s leaders and citizens have accorded to the U.S. armed forces, issues related to national defense, and the American approach to war-fighting. This course traces the history of the United States military from its colonial origins to the present day. Along with examining the purpose and performance of the military during times of conflict, assessment will be made of its function as a political and socioeconomic institution; its role and effectiveness as an instrument of diplomacy and foreign policy; the extent and limitations of its power within America’s constitutional system; its relevance and function during peacetime; the evolution of its strategies and tactics; the impact and application of technology; and the contributions of major figures who built and shaped it into not only a force of overwhelming power, but an institutional organ of American society.
4 Credits | Spring, Every Third Year

Ancient World Courses

210. The Greek World — This course surveys the major historical developments and literary figures of Greece from preclassical times to the end of the Hellenistic period. Cross-listed with Clas 210. Students who enroll for Hist 210 will write a paper on a historical topic; those who enroll for Clas 210 will write a paper on a literary topic. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

215. The Roman World — This course surveys major historical developments and literary figures from the foundation of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Empire. Cross-listed with Clas 215. Students who enroll for Hist 215 will write a paper on a historical topic; those who enroll for Clas 215 will write a paper on a literary topic. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

285. Gender and Sexuality in Antiquity — This course surveys male and female gender roles in the Ancient Near East, Greece, and Rome. It examines questions of patriarchy/matriarchy, marriage patterns, and attitudes toward sexuality displayed in the literature and art of those cultures. Attention is given to problems of methodology and modern interpretations of ancient sources on this subject, including the Old and New Testaments. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

Europe Courses

205. British and Irish History to 1700 — A survey of British and Irish civilization from origins to the late 17th century. This course will focus on major events, trends and personalities in Britain and Ireland to 1700 by integrating the histories of the various peoples of the British Isles. Using artistic, literary and other historical sources we will concentrate on the evolution of distinct English and Irish forms of law, culture and society; the clash between kings and parliaments; the role of religion within the two cultures; the development of London; and England's stormy relationship with its neighbors—Ireland, Scotland, Wales and the rest of Europe. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | As Needed | Global Learning International (GLI)

206. British and Irish History Since 1700 — A survey of British and Irish civilization from the late 17th century to the present. History 206 will focus on major events, trends and personalities in Britain and Ireland since 1700, exploring Britain’s rise as a world power in the 18th and 19th centuries and subsequent decline in the 20th and 21st centuries. Using artistic, literary and other historical sources we will concentrate on British and Irish society and culture, the relationship between the two peoples, the invention and evolution of constitutional monarchy, Irish nationalism, the 20th century world wars and the Ulster Troubles. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | As Needed | Global Learning International (GLI)

218. The Middle Ages: Europe, Byzantium and Islam — Investigate an age of faith, of warfare, of economic and political fragmentation, and of the invention of new institutions. We will begin with the closing years of the Roman Empire and follow political, economic and social developments between the fifth and 15th centuries. Major themes in the course include religion, state formation, social structures, everyday life, commerce, war, and intercultural contact. Besides the conventional topics in Western European history, we will examine the decline and fall of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of Islam. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

242. Twentieth Century Europe — Does each century have a "spirit of the age"? What do the trenches of the First World War, the gas chambers of the Holocaust, the communist experiment, and psychoanalysis reveal about the "spirit" of the twentieth century? This course surveys the history of twentieth-century Europe from three chronologically overlapping vantage points: "the age of catastrophe," "the age of secular ideological extremes," and "the limits of secularism." The events and developments examined in this course are chosen to reflect these concerns. In addition to mastering the main events and developments that have defined the twentieth century, we will seek to answer the question, In what ways are we heirs of the legacy of the twentieth-century Europe as seen from each of these vantage points? This course has been flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

248. Europe in the Age of Reformation — Transformation of Europe from the crisis of late medieval society to 1648. Emphasis on religious, political, social and economic dimensions of European life in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the response of men and women, rulers and social groups, states and institutions to the new theological and spiritual challenges wrought by the Reformation. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

280. Modern Imperialism — The rise and fall of the British Empire provides the focus of this course. British colonial experience is set in a larger context, which traces European, and to a lesser degree, world imperialism from origins to the contemporary era. The purpose of the course is to examine modern imperialism simultaneously from the perspective of the colonizer and colonized, and to evaluate the impact of imperialism on European and Third World societies. Primary focus will be on the experience of Africa and India. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | As Needed | Global Learning International (GLI)

Global Courses

341. World War Two: Collaboration and Resistance — This course explores one specific dimension of 20th-century history, namely how societies and individuals faced the moral ambiguities caused by the Second World War. We will examine the issue of collective and individual choice in history. For example, to what extent is history determined by larger “forces” and to what extent does human agency shape specific historic developments? Our examples for the moral ambiguities presented by the war will come from several case studies of enemy-occupied territories: Greece, France and China. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

344. Genocide in the Modern World — The 20th century has been called “The Century of Genocide.” This course will examine case studies of 20th-century genocide, selected from the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Rwanda, and other less-famous examples. We will analyze different definitions of genocide, examine the international legal structures dealing with genocide and crimes against humanity, and investigate the historical context of the varied genocides in the modern world.This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

364. Latino Identities: Ethnic Diversity in Latin American and U.S. History — This course examines the formation of Latino identities in the western hemisphere from European contact and conquest to today’s patterns of economic and cultural globalization. Students will focus on tensions within identity formation in Latin American history linked to the colonial experience and subsequent projects of nationalism, the formation of Latino identity in the United States, the history of Latinos in West Michigan, and understanding their own identity formation as “Americans” against the backdrop of learning about Latino identities. The ability to value others’ culture necessarily requires a firm understanding of one’s own identity, and the overall goal of the course is to prepare students for roles in a global society by strengthening a sense of their own identity and developing an ability to appreciate the identities of others. This course is flagged for cultural diversity and global learning international.
4 Credits | Spring, Odd Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

371. Paris and Shanghai: A Tale of Two Cities — This course explores the national histories of France and China from the 19th century to our time by following the historical developments of two important urban centers, namely Paris and Shanghai. Special emphasis will be placed upon diplomatic and cultural relations between France and China in the context of 19th-century imperialism, the wars and revolutions of the 20th century, and the process of globalization that continues to our day. Attention will also be given to expatriate and immigrant communities in these two cities that reflect the relations between France and China as well as important historical developments of the modern world. This course is flagged for global learning international.
4 Credits | Fall, Even Years | Global Learning International (GLI)

Special Courses

195. Studies in History — A course offered in response to student and instructor interest. Topics are not generally covered in the regular course listings. Course may be taken multiple times if topics are different.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | As Needed

295. Studies in European, American, or Non-Western History — These courses are designed to allow students to study geographic areas, historical periods, or particular issues not normally covered in the formal courses offered in the Department of History. In each course a professor will present lectures in his or her area of particular interest and students will engage in guided reading and research under the professor's supervision.
2-4 Credits | As needed

395. Special Topics in History — A course offered in response to student and instructor interest. Topics are not generally covered in the regular course listings. Course may be taken multiple times if topics are different.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | As Needed

490. Independent Studies in History — Designed to provide students majoring in history, and others, with an opportunity to do advanced work in a field in which they have a special interest. Formal application and departmental approval of proposed study are required. This designation, with appropriate descriptive title, may be used for Washington Honors Semester credits and study abroad credits.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring

495. Seminar in History — This course is required of all history majors and is also open to non-majors with a serious interest in learning how to do scholarly research. The course is designed to help students develop advanced skills in historical research and writing. Major emphasis is given to the development of sound research methods and to the use of primary source materials. Each student will be expected to produce a lengthy research paper of scholarly merit and literary quality.
Prerequisites: Hist 140
4 Credits | Fall, Spring

499. History Internships — This course is a practical experience for students. It enables them to apply the knowledge, research methods, and writing skills acquired in the academically oriented setting to concrete projects carried out in museums, businesses, and other institutions. Application is made to the chairperson of the Department of History. Supervision and the number of credits earned are determined by the nature of the project. Maximum of four credits can be applied toward the major.
Prerequisites: Permission of chairperson
1-4 Credits | Fall, Spring, Summer

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